Dr. C.Y. Lo has TWO PhD degrees: Physics and Mathematics.

The doctorate in Physics was obtained from MIT.

He was Dr. Philip Morrison's student (Dr. Morrison, Professor Emeritus at MIT).

His most famous paper is: C. Y. Lo, Einstein's Radiation Formula and Modifications to the Einstein Equation, Astrophysical Journal 455, 421-428 (Dec. 20, 1995):

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234454208_Einstein's_Radiation_Formula_and_Modifications_to_the_Einstein_Equation*There's no need to explain that until you have proven that it does happen under normal atmospheric conditions.*But there is, since you immediately claim this:

*That curved water hides ships and cities, etc is confirmed by many observation under good conditions with no sign of looming or miraging etc.*

Since you think that water stays curved, YOU BETTER EXPLAIN THIS HYPOTHESIS!

*Already done! If YOU don't accept it, tough!*You haven't provided anything other than "mass bends space time".

That was debunked in three seconds.

YOU HAVE NOTHING!

NO EXPLANATION AT ALL!

Provide the explanation on how a single gallon of water stays in place on the outer surface of a spherical Earth.

If that is too much for you, I can reduce the quantity to a SINGLE LITER OF WATER.

*He claimed that the Sagnac effect did not fit with Special Relativity and most would agree with that because the Sagnac effect needs General Relativity to explain accurately.*No.

THE CRUCIAL CLAIM, ACCOMPANIED BY A PROOF, WAS THAT THE GPS SATELLITES DO NOT REGISTER/RECORD THE ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT.

No orbital Sagnac effect, no orbit for the Earth.

You cannot bring in Malykin.

He did wrong.

The Sagnac effect is far larger than the effect forecast by relativity theory.

STR has no possible function in explaining the Sagnac effect.

The Sagnac effect is a non-relativistic effect.

COMPARISON OF THE SAGNAC EFFECT WITH SPECIAL RELATIVITY, starts on page 7, calculations/formulas on page 8

http://www.naturalphilosophy.org/pdf/ebooks/Kelly-TimeandtheSpeedofLight.pdfpage 8

Because many investigators claim that the

Sagnac effect is made explicable by using the

Theory of Special Relativity, a comparison of

that theory with the actual test results is given

below. It will be shown that the effects

calculated under these two theories are of very

different orders of magnitude, and that

therefore the Special Theory is of no value in

trying to explain the effect.

COMPARISON OF THE SAGNAC EFFECT WITH STR

STR stipulates that the time t' recorded by an observer moving at velocity v is slower than the time t

_{o} recorded by a stationary observer, according to:

t

_{o} = t'γ

where γ = (1 - v

^{2}/c

^{2})

^{-1/2} = 1 + v

^{2}/2c

^{2} + O(v/c)

^{4}...

t

_{o} = t'(1 + v

^{2}/2c

^{2})

dt

_{R} = (t

_{o} - t')/t

_{o} = v

^{2}/(v

^{2} + 2c

^{2})

dt

_{R} = relativity time ratio

Now, t

_{o} - t' = 2πr/c - 2πr/(c + v) = 2πrv/(c + v)c

dt' = t

_{o} - t' = t

_{o}v/(c + v)

dt

_{S} = (t

_{o} - t')/t

_{o} = v/(v + c)

dt

_{S} = Sagnac ratio

dt

_{S}/dt

_{R} = (2c

^{2} + v

^{2})/v(v + c)

When v is small as compared to c, as is the case in all practical experiments, this ratio

reduces to 2c/v.

Thus the Sagnac effect is far larger than any

purely Relativistic effect. For example,

considering the data in the Pogany test (8 ),

where the rim of the disc was moving with a

velocity of 25 m/s, the ratio dtS/dtR is about

1.5 x 10^7. Any attempt to explain the Sagnac

as a Relativistic effect is thus useless, as it is

smaller by a factor of 10^7.

Referring back to equation (I), consider a disc

of radius one kilometre. In this case a fringe

shift of one fringe is achieved with a velocity

at the perimeter of the disc of 0.013m/s. This

is an extremely low velocity, being less than

lm per minute. In this case the Sagnac effect

would be 50 billion times larger than the

calculated effect under the Relativity Theory.

**Post (1967) shows that the two (Sagnac and STR) are of very different orders of magnitude. **He says that the dilation factor to be applied under SR is “indistinguishable with presently available equipment” and “is still one order smaller than the Doppler correction, which occurs when observing fringe shifts” in the Sagnac tests. He also points out that the Doppler effect “is v/c times smaller than the effect one wants to observe." Here Post states that the effect forecast by SR, for the time dilation aboard a moving object, is far smaller than the effect to be observed in a Sagnac test.

*No, I did not and simply would not "EQUATE the angular orbital velocity with the solar surface gravity"!*BUT YOU DID!

Of course, the surface gravity of the Sun is roughly 274 m/s^{2}!

And here is another way to check that 274 m/s^{2} value for the Sun's surface gravity.

Average distance from earth to Sun: 149,597,870,000 m.

*Radius of Sun*: 695,510,000 m

*Sidereal year*: 31,558,150 secs

Hence *Earth's orbital Angular Velocity* = 2 x π / (Sidereal year) = 1.99099E-07 rad/s

Hence *Earth's centripetal Acceleration about Sun* = (1.99099 x 10^{-7})^{2} x (149,597,870,000) = 0.005930 m/s^{2}.

But the (*Sun's gravity at the Earth*) = (*Earth's centripetal Acceleration about Sun*) = 0.005930 m/s^{2}.

Now the gravity due to the Sun decreases as 1/(*distance from the sun*)^{2}.

The Earth is 149,597,870,000 m from the Sun's centre and the Sun's surface is 695,510,000 m from the Sun's centre.

Therefore the Sun's gravity at its surface = 0.005930 x (149,597,870,000/695,510,000)^{2} =** 274.35 m/s**^{2} - *QED*.

So that agrees quite well with the surface g of the Sun as calculated from its mass, radius and the *Universal Gravitational Constant* - funny that!

Therefore, the value of 274 m/s2 RESTS ENTIRELY ON THIS STATEMENT:

*Hence Earth's orbital Angular Velocity = 2 x π / (Sidereal year) = 1.99099E-07 rad/s*If the Earth is not orbiting the Sun, a(sun) DOES NOT equal 274.35m/s2: IN FACT IT IS EQUAL TO ZERO.

Then, we are left with the centrifugal acceleration: a

_{c} = 0.0063 m/s

^{2}.

*I know that the angular orbital velocity is NOT zero.*Then, you know wrong.

IT HAS TO BE ZERO, SINCE THE GPS SATELLITES DO NOT REGISTER/RECORD THE ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT.

Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis: orbiting case

K Rajesh Nayak and J-Y Vinet

https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/946106/1027345/TDI_FOR_.PDF/2bb32fba-1b8a-438d-9e95-bc40c32debbeThis is an IOP article, published by the prestigious journal Classic and Quantum Gravity:

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0264-9381/22/10/040/meta**In this work, we estimate the effects due to the Sagnac phase by taking the realistic model for LISA orbital motion.**

This work is organized as follows: in section 2, we make an estimate of Sagnac phase

for individual laser beams of LISA by taking realistic orbital motion. Here we show that, in general, the residual laser noise because of Sagnac phase is much larger than earlier estimates.

For the LISA geometry, R⊙/L is of the order 30 and the orbital contribution to the Sagnac phase is larger by this factor.Therefore, the value of 274 m/s2 RESTS ENTIRELY ON THIS STATEMENT:

*Hence Earth's orbital Angular Velocity = 2 x π / (Sidereal year) = 1.99099E-07 rad/s*If the Earth is not orbiting the Sun, a(sun) DOES NOT equal 274.35m/s2: IN FACT IT IS EQUAL TO ZERO.

Since the GPS satellites ARE NOT registering/recording the missing ORBITAL SAGNAC, that means that the Earth is not orbiting the Sun.