*There is none.*https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f606/87008dd7b3e872c67770eaa9ada9128bbf8b.pdfJournal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications:

For the interplanetary propagation, earth’s orbital

motion contributes to the Sagnac effect as well. This local-ether model

has been adopted to account for the Sagnac effect due to earth’s

motions in a wide variety of propagation phenomena, particularly the

global positioning system (GPS), the intercontinental microwave link,

and the interplanetary radar.

The peer reviewers at the Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications agree that the orbital Sagnac is larger than the rotational Sagnac, that it is missing, and that a local-ether model has to be adopted in order to account for this fact.

https://web.archive.org/web/20170808104846/http://qem.ee.nthu.edu.tw/f1b.pdfThis is an IOP article.

The author recognizes the earth's orbital Sagnac is missing whereas the earth's rotational Sagnac is not.

He uses GPS and a link between Japan and the US to prove this.

In GPS the actual magnitude of the Sagnac correction

due to earth’s rotation depends on the positions of

satellites and receiver and a typical value is 30 m, as the

propagation time is about 0.1s and the linear speed due

to earth’s rotation is about 464 m/s at the equator. The

GPS provides an accuracy of about 10 m or better in positioning.

Thus the precision of GPS will be degraded significantly,

if the Sagnac correction due to earth’s rotation

is not taken into account. On the other hand, the orbital

motion of the earth around the sun has a linear speed of

about 30 km/s which is about 100 times that of earth’s

rotation. Thus the present high-precision GPS would be

entirely impossible if the omitted correction due to orbital

motion is really necessary.

In an intercontinental microwave link between Japan and

the USA via a geostationary satellite as relay, the influence

of earth’s rotation is also demonstrated in a high-precision

time comparison between the atomic clocks at two remote

ground stations.

In this transpacific-link experiment, a synchronization

error of as large as about 0.3 µs was observed unexpectedly.

Meanwhile, as in GPS, no effects of earth’s orbital motion

are reported in these links, although they would be

easier to observe if they are in existence. Thereby, it is evident

that the wave propagation in GPS or the intercontinental

microwave link depends on the earth’s rotation, but

is entirely independent of earth’s orbital motion around

the sun or whatever. As a consequence, the propagation

mechanism in GPS or intercontinental link can be viewed

as classical in conjunction with an ECI frame, rather than

the ECEF or any other frame, being selected as the unique

propagation frame. In other words, the wave in GPS or the

intercontinental microwave link can be viewed as propagating

via a classical medium stationary in a geocentric

inertial frame.

Published by the BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY, one of the most prestigious journals in the world today.

C.C. Su, "A Local-ether model of propagation of electromagnetic wave," in Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 45, no. 1, p. 637, Mar. 2000 (Minneapolis, Minnesota).

https://web.archive.org/web/20050217023926/https://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/ccsu/**Both the rotational and the orbital motions of the earth together with the orbital**

motion of the target planet contribute to the Sagnac

effect. But the orbital motion of the sun has no effects

on the interplanetary propagation. On the other hand, as

the unique propagation frame in GPS and intercontinental

links is a geocentric inertial frame, the rotational motion

of the earth contributes to the Sagnac effect.

**But the orbital**

motion of the earth around the sun and that of the

sun have no effects on the earthbound propagation. By

comparing GPS with interplanetary radar, it is seen that

there is a common Sagnac effect due to earth’s rotation

and a common null effect of the orbital motion of the sun

on wave propagation.

**However, there is a discrepancy in**

the Sagnac effect due to earth’s orbital motion. Moreover,

by comparing GPS with the widely accepted interpretation

of the Michelson–Morley experiment, it is seen that

there is a common null effect of the orbital motions on

wave propagation, whereas there is a discrepancy in the

Sagnac effect due to earth’s rotation.

Based on this characteristic of uniqueness and switchability of the propagation frame,

we propose in the following section the local-ether model

of wave propagation

**to solve the discrepancies in the in-**

fluences of earth’s rotational and orbital motions on the

Sagnac effect and to account for a wide variety of propagation

phenomena.

**Anyway, the interplanetary Sagnac effect is due to**

earth’s orbital motion around the sun as well as earth’s

rotation. Further, for the interstellar propagation where

the source is located beyond the solar system, the orbital

motion of the sun contributes to the interstellar Sagnac

effect as well.

Evidently, as expected, the proposed local-ether model

accounts for the Sagnac effect due to earth’s rotation and

the null effect of earth’s orbital motion in the earthbound

propagations in GPS and intercontinental microwave link

experiments. Meanwhile, in the interplanetary radar, it accounts

for the Sagnac effect due both to earth’s rotation

and to earth’s orbital motion around the sun.

Based on the local-ether model, the propagation is entirely

independent of the earth’s orbital motion around

the sun or whatever and the velocity v for such an earthbound

experiment is referred to an ECI frame and hence

is due to earth’s rotation alone.

** In the original proposal,**

the velocity v was supposed to incorporate earth’s orbital

motion around the sun. Thus, at least, v^{2}/c^{2}

=~ 10^{-8}. Then the amplitude of the phase-difference variation

could be as large as π/3, when the wavelength is

0.6 µm and the path length is 10 m. However, as the velocity

v is the linear velocity due to earth’s rotation alone,

the round-trip Sagnac effect is as small as v^{2}/c^{2}∼ 10^{-12} which is merely 10^{-4} times that due to the orbital motion.The Sagnac effect is a FIRST ORDER effect in v/c.

Even in the round-trip nature of the Sagnac effect, as it was applied in the Michelson-Morley experiment, thus becoming a second order effect within that context,

**we can see that the ORBITAL SAGNAC IS 10,000 TIMES GREATER than the rotational Sagnac effect.**Your statement has just been refuted and debunked: the orbital SAGNAC effect is missing.

You have to deal with the missing ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT, which you are not.

LISA Space Antenna

The LISA interferometer rotates both around its own axis and around the Sun as well, at the same time.

That is, the interferometer will be subjected to BOTH the rotational Sagnac (equivalent to the Coriolis effect) and the orbital Sagnac effects.

Given the huge cost of the entire project, the best experts in the field (CalTech, ESA) were called upon to provide the necessary theoretical calculations for the total phase shift of the interferometer. To everyone's surprise, and for the first time since Sagnac and Michelson and Gale, it was found that the ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT is much greater than the CORIOLIS EFFECT.

The factor of proportionality is R/L (R = radius of rotation, L = length of the side of the interferometer).

Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis: orbiting case

K Rajesh Nayak and J-Y Vinet

https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/946106/1027345/TDI_FOR_.PDF/2bb32fba-1b8a-438d-9e95-bc40c32debbeThis is an IOP article, published by the prestigious journal Classic and Quantum Gravity:

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0264-9381/22/10/040/metaIn this work, we estimate the effects due to the Sagnac phase by taking the realistic model for LISA orbital motion.

This work is organized as follows: in section 2, we make an estimate of Sagnac phase

for individual laser beams of LISA by taking realistic orbital motion. Here we show that, in general, the residual laser noise because of Sagnac phase is much larger than earlier estimates.

For the LISA geometry, R⊙/L is of the order 30 and the orbital contribution to the Sagnac phase is larger by this factor.

The computations carried out by Dr. R.K. Nayak (over ten papers published on the subject) and Dr. J.Y. Vinet (Member of the LISA International Science Team), and published by prestigious scientific journals and by ESA, show that the orbital Sagnac is 30 times greater than the rotational Sagnac for LISA.

CALTECH acknowledges that the ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT is not being registered by GPS satellites.

https://web.archive.org/web/20161019095630/http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/ptti/2003papers/paper34.pdfDr. Massimo Tinto, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Principal Scientist

In the SSB frame, the differences between back-forth delay times are very much larger than has been previously recognized. The reason is in the aberration due to motion and changes of orientation in the SSB frame. With a velocity V=30 km/s, the light-transit times of light signals in opposing directions (Li, and L’i) will differ by as much as 2VL (a few thousands km).

SSB = solar system barycenter

Published in the Physical Review D

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/ is the U.S. Naval Observatory website

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0310017.pdfWithin this frame, which we can assume to be Solar System Barycentric (SSB), the differences between back-forth delay times that occur are in fact thousands of kilometers, very much larger than has been previously recognized by us or others. The problem is not rotation per se, but rather aberration due to motion and changes of orientation in the SSB frame.

The kinematics of the LISA orbit brings in the effects of motion at several orders of magnitude larger than any previous papers on TDI have addressed. The instantaneous rotation axis of LISA swings about the Sun at 30 km/sec, and on any leg the transit times of light signals in opposing directions can differ by as much as 1000 km.

Aberration due to LISA’s orbit about the Sun dominates its instantaneous rotation.

The ORBITAL SAGNAC calculated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory amounts to an admitted difference in path lengths of 1,000 kilometers.

The difference in path lengths for the rotational Sagnac is 14.4 kilometers:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0306125.pdf (Dr. Daniel Shaddock, Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

https://gwic.ligo.org/thesisprize/2011/yu_thesis.pdf (pg. 63)

Therefore the difference in path lengths for the ORBITAL SAGNAC is some 60 times greater than the difference in path lengths for the rotational Sagnac, according to these calculations.

You have to accept reality: CALTECH/NASA/ESA is telling you that THE ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT IS MISSING. Then, the Earth is stationary. Or you have to accept the local-ether model.