What do you think about this? Don't you think that make an experiment and reject the results because they don't fit to your theory is irrational?

It shows Earth rotates (and is round) quite conclusively.

Let's put your statement to the test.

Point A is located at the detector

Point B is in the bottom right corner

Point C is in the upper right corner

Point D is in the upper left corner

l

_{1} is the upper arm.

l

_{2} is the lower arm.

Here is the most important part of the derivation of the full/global Sagnac effect for an interferometer located away from the center of rotation.

A > B > C > D > A is a continuous counterclockwise path, a negative sign -

A > D > C > B > A is a continuous clockwise path, a positive sign +

The Sagnac phase difference for the clockwise path has a positive sign.

The Sagnac phase difference for the counterclockwise has a negative sign.

Sagnac phase components for the A > D > C > B > A path (clockwise path):

l

_{1}/(c - v

_{1})

-l

_{2}/(c + v

_{2})

Sagnac phase components for the A > B > C > D > A path (counterclockwise path):

l

_{2}/(c - v

_{2})

-l

_{1}/(c + v

_{1})

For the single continuous clockwise path we add the components:

l

_{1}/(c - v

_{1}) - l

_{2}/(c + v

_{2})

For the single continuous counterclockwise path we add the components:

l

_{2}/(c - v

_{2}) - l

_{1}/(c + v

_{1})

The net phase difference will be (let us remember that the counterclockwise phase difference has a negative sign attached to it, that is why the substraction of the phase differences becomes an addition):

{l

_{1}/(c - v

_{1}) - l

_{2}/(c + v

_{2})} - (-){l

_{2}/(c - v

_{2}) - l

_{1}/(c + v

_{1})} = {l

_{1}/(c - v

_{1}) - l

_{2}/(c + v

_{2})}

+ {l

_{2}/(c - v

_{2}) - l

_{1}/(c + v

_{1})}

Rearranging terms:

l

_{1}/(c - v

_{1}) - l

_{1}/(c + v

_{1})

+ {l

_{2}/(c - v

_{2}) - l

_{2}/(c + v

_{2})} =

2(v

_{1}l

_{1} + v

_{2}l

_{2})/c

^{2}Exactly the formula obtained by Professor Yeh:

φ = -2(φ

_{2} - φ

_{1}) = 4π(R

_{1}L

_{1} **+** R

_{2}L

_{2})Ω/λc = 4π(V

_{1}L

_{1} + V

_{2}L

_{2})/λc

Since Δφ = 2πc/λ x Δt, Δt = 2(R

_{1}L

_{1} **+** R

_{2}L

_{2})Ω/c

^{2} = 2(V

_{1}L

_{1} + V

_{2}L

_{2})/c

^{2}CORRECT SAGNAC FORMULA:

**2(V**_{1}L_{1} + V_{2}L_{2})/c^{2}Self-pumped phase-conjugate fiber-optic gyro, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, Optics Letters 11(10):686-8 · November 1986

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a170203.pdf (appendix 5.1)

This is how the correct Sagnac formula is derived: we have single continuous clockwise path, and a single continuous counterclockwise path.

If we desire the Coriolis effect, we simply substract as follows:

dt = l

_{1}/(c - v

_{1}) - l

_{1}/(c + v

_{1}) - (l

_{2}/(c - v

_{2}) - l

_{2}/(c + v

_{2}))

For the Coriolis effect, one has a formula which is proportional to the area; only the phase differences of EACH SIDE are being compared, and not the continuous paths.

For the Sagnac effect, one has a formula which is proportional to the velocity of the light beam; the entire continuous clockwise path is being compared to the other continuous counterclockwise path exactly as required by the definition of the Sagnac effect.

Experimentally, the Michelson-Gale test was a closed loop, but not mathematically. Michelson treated mathematically each of the longer sides/arms of the interferometer as a separate entity: no closed loop was formed at all. Therefore the mathematical description put forth by Michelson has nothing to do with the correct definition of the Sagnac effect (two pulses of light are sent in opposite direction around a closed loop) (either circular or a single uniform path). By treating each side/arm separately, Michelson was describing and analyzing the Coriolis effect, not the Sagnac effect.

Loop = a structure, series, or process, the end of which is connected to the beginning.

Connecting the two sides through a single mathematical description closes the loop; treating each side separately does not. The Sagnac effect requires, by definition, a structure, the end of which is connected to the beginning.

**A second reference** which confirms my global/generalized Sagnac effect formula.

https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a206219.pdfStudies of phase-conjugate optical devices concepts

US OF NAVAL RESEARCH, Physics Division

Dr. P. Yeh

PhD, Caltech, Nonlinear Optics

Principal Scientist of the Optics Department at Rockwell International Science Center

Professor, UCSB

"Engineer of the Year," at Rockwell Science Center

Leonardo da Vinci Award in 1985

Fellow of the Optical Society of America, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

page 152 of the pdf document, section Recent Advances in Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics page 4

**The MPPC acts like a normal mirror and Sagnac interferometry is obtained.** Phase-Conjugate Multimode Fiber Gyro

Published in the Journal of Optics Letters, vol. 12, page 1023, 1987

page 69 of the pdf document, page 1 of the article

A second confirmation of the fact that my formula is correct.

Here is the first confirmation:

Self-pumped phase-conjugate fiber-optic gyro, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, Optics Letters 11(10):686-8 · November 1986

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a170203.pdf (appendix 5.1)

Exactly the formula obtained by Professor Yeh:

φ = -2(φ

_{2} - φ

_{1}) = 4π(R

_{1}L

_{1} **+** R

_{2}L

_{2})Ω/λc = 4π(V

_{1}L

_{1} + V

_{2}L

_{2})/λc

**Since Δφ = 2πc/λ x Δt, Δt = 2(R**_{1}L_{1} **+** R_{2}L_{2})Ω/c^{2} = 2(V_{1}L_{1} + V_{2}L_{2})/c^{2}CORRECT SAGNAC FORMULA:

**2(V**_{1}L_{1} + V_{2}L_{2})/c^{2}The very same formula obtained for a Sagnac interferometer which features two different lengths and two different velocities.

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a170203.pdfANNUAL TECHNICAL REPORT PREPARED FOR THE US OF NAVAL RESEARCH.

Page 18 of the pdf document, Section 3.0 Progress:

**Our first objective was to demonstrate that the phase-conjugate fiberoptic gyro (PCFOG) described in Section 2.3 is sensitive to rotation. This phase shift plays an important role in the detection of the Sagnac phase shift due to rotation. **Page 38 of the pdf document, page 6 of Appendix 3.1

**it does demonstrate the measurement of the Sagnac phase shift Eq. (3)**HERE IS EQUATION (3) OF THE PAPER, PAGE 3 OF APPENDIX 3.1:

φ = -2(φ

_{2} - φ

_{1}) = 4π(R

_{1}L

_{1} **+** R

_{2}L

_{2})Ω/λc = 4π(V

_{1}L

_{1} + V

_{2}L

_{2})/λc

**Since Δφ = 2πc/λ x Δt, Δt = 2(R**_{1}L_{1} **+** R_{2}L_{2})Ω/c^{2} = 2(V_{1}L_{1} + V_{2}L_{2})/c^{2}CORRECT SAGNAC FORMULA:

**2(V**_{1}L_{1} + V_{2}L_{2})/c^{2}