Advanced Flat Earth Theory

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #630 on: August 11, 2019, 12:57:03 AM »
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE THEORETICAL PREDICTION AND ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS OF GR EFFECTS

General Relativity Problem of Mercury’s Perihelion Advance Revisited

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1008.1811.pdf

There is a firm consensus among astronomy and physics communities, mass media as well, that the perihelion advance test is the accomplished task. We think, however, that physical reality is more complicated, and the above precision numbers for physicists must seem to be to a great extent fictitious.

Now we state that the Mercury’s relativistic effect has never been directly observed and even not evaluated from circumstantial astronomical evidence. The matter is that the GR theory, at least as it given in literature, does not provide a clue about distinguishing between the classical drag along with the equinoxes precession, on the one hand, and relativistic effect, on the other hand.

Thus, the claimed formula for the perihelion advance 3rg/r0 is a result of inappropriate mathematical assumption in the equation solution, therefore, the prediction is not valid.

As it seen, both earlier and this evaluation has nothing to do with the above discussed GR framework. Einstein, when working on the perihelion advance problem in 1915, had to be aware of the space-time symmetries, from which the equations of motion (18) and the trajectory for both the particle and the photon were deduced (19), (26). However, his derivation of the light deflection in 1916 was made in the ad hoc approach, outside the above GR framework. The effect about 1.7′′ of deflection was confirmed in a series of observations of total eclipses of the Sun’s, but this confirmation was made against the logic of GR physical foundations rather than in accordance with that. This circumstance remained largely unnoticed (or thought excusable?) in the GR history.

The GR description of the perihelion advance is given in such a form that the effect cannot be discriminated from the huge fluctuating background of classically induced precession. Consequently, astronomers had to identify the effect as a difference of big fluctuating numbers in observed and calculated ephemerides values. As emphasized, they tried “to fit” theoretical ephemerides to the exactly predicted number. This methodology and the corresponding results cannot be termed an observational test.
Rigor of the effect prediction is in a serious doubt. The Einstein’s “approximate” solution, when put back into the original equation, does not fit the equation to the precision better than the effect value. The GR-term, which is thought to be the cause of both the perihelion advance effect and the light bending effect, has no physical sense, as shown by Fock and in our work. The Fock’s work also shows that the equation of light propagation in a vicinity of massive object must have the linear (potential) term instead of the GR-term.

Overall, we conclude that the claimed confirmation of the GR prediction of the relativistic perihelion advance is neither theoretically nor empirically substantiated.


Dr. C.Y. Lo
PhD Mathematics, Queen's University
PhD Physics, MIT

In Newtonian gravity, the two-body problem has a well-defined compact analytic solution. However, in general relativity, the problem is recognized that it cannot be solved analytically. However, many believed that the two-body problem could be solved in the perturbation approach. Their confidence is based on that the linearized Einstein equation has a bounded dynamic solution.

For the dynamic case when gravitational waves are involved, it has been proven in 1995 that the Einstein equation does not have any bounded dynamic solution. This has far reaching consequences.

Thus, Einstein is wrong in claiming his calculation of the perihelion of Mercury is valid, but Gullstrand, Chairman (1922-1929) of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physics is right who suspected that Einstein‘s calculation is invalid because it cannot be derived from the approach of a solution for many-body problems.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b505/e829279c6b69556fb37f9e8d90efec2881cf.pdf?_ga=2.108983489.2136939065.1565472133-1824092360.1565472133

Comments on Errors of “A simplified two-body problem in general relativity” by S Hod And Rectification of General Relativity


How Einstein modified his formula relating to Mercury's orbit in order to fit the results:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg769750#msg769750


TGR applies only to the radial component of Newton's equation: F = mg. It cannot capture the gravitational potential term.

Moreover, it cannot be applied to the planetary system, or to calculations pertaining to other galaxies: one has to first prove that the Earth does revolve around its own axis and that it does orbit the Sun. Without these proofs, applying TGR to the aforementioned situations is meaningless.

Dark flow defies TGR on a grand cosmic scale:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1936995#msg1936995


"Maxwell showed in one of his papers that mass can be expressed as length3/time2 ( L3/T2), and if we do that then G loses most of its mystery. G loses all its dimensions."

Article 5 [chapter 1] of Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism

The first physicist to notice this fact was M. Mathis in 2007.

Question: how could Newton possibly have known that mass can be expressed as L3/T2 in order to mask the fact that G is actually dimensionless?


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #631 on: August 11, 2019, 04:11:15 AM »
GERTSENSHTEIN-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT: GRAVITON-PHOTON CONVERSION

The transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational wave when the electromagnetic wave propagates through a constant transverse magnetic field.

Inverse GZ effect: the birth of an electromagnetic field under the action of metric perturbation (equivalent of GW action) in the strong magnetic field.

The generated EM wave is a second-order effect (proportional to the square of the amplitude of the GW).



Wave resonance of light and gravitational waves

http://www.jetp.ac.ru/cgi-bin/dn/e_014_01_0084.pdf


Electromagnetic and gravitational waves in a stationary magnetic field

http://jetp.ac.ru/cgi-bin/dn/e_038_04_0652.pdf


Gravitational Hertz experiment with electromagnetic radiation in a strong magnetic field

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1504/1504.06548.pdf


“Since it has definite energy, the gravitational wave is itself is the source of some additional gravitational field (static g-field). Like the energy producing it, this field is a second-order effect in the hik. But in the case of high-frequency gravitational waves the effect is significantly strengthened: the fact that the pseudotensor tik is quadratic in the derivatives of the hik introduces the large factor λ-2. In such a case we may say that the wave itself produces the background field (static g-field) on which it propagates. This [static g] field is conveniently treated by carrying out the averaging described above over regions of four-space with dimensions large compared to λ. Such an averaging smooths out the short-wave “ripple” and leaves the slowly varying background metric (static g-field).”

Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. (1975), The Classical Theory of Fields


Field Equations in the Complex Quaternion Spaces

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.06182.pdf


Light passing through a strong magnetic field will produce a gravitational wave via wave resonance.

But this is exactly the physical description of the double torsion subquark waves:



https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2000525#msg2000525 (electrogravitational field of a stationary Earth)

There is a flow of bosons through POSITRON WAVES (LAEVOROTATORY SUBQUARKS), and also a current of bosons through  ELECTRON WAVES (DEXTROROTATORY SUBQUARKS).

The electrogravitational field has magnetic waves AND ALSO gravitational waves.

This is the missing part of the unified field theory.

E.T. Whittaker proved mathematically the existence of the electrogravitational potential, the bidirectional longitudinal waves.

They travel/propagate in double torsion fashion.

No physicist to date has observed this crucial fact: the magnetic wave and the gravitational wave form a single structure, the electrogravitational field. The gravitational potential consists of bosons which flow through dextrorotatory subquarks (electrons), and the electromagnetic potential is made up of bosons which propagate through laevorotatory subquarks (positrons).



This is how the Gertsenshtein-Zel'dovich effect is being generated.


However, there is a crucial difference between the two cases being considered here: FE and RE.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2009680#msg2009680

RE version:

The magnetic field does rotate along with the Earth.

But not its gravitational field: the orbiting Earth rotates through its gravitational field.

Modern science assumes that the gravitational field and the magnetic field of the Earth represent two different physical phenomena: one is stationary ( the gravitational field does not rotate along with the supposed rotation of the Earth), the other one (the magnetic field) is rotating with the Earth around its own axis.

FE version:

BOTH GW and EW propagate in double torsion fashion, one is the dextrorotatory wave, and the other one is the laevorotatory wave.


The graviton is the dextrorotatory subquark.

The antigraviton is the laevorotatory subquark.

These subquarks consist of some 14 billion bosons which travel, as well, in double torsion fashion, the longitudinal sound waves discovered by Tesla.

A boson = photon = neutrino = Kaluza-Klein particle


https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1b42/edd83745a7e36b7b3c0fcec7bc2b4bcd7609.pdf?_ga=2.232273180.2056670500.1565448278-1308616368.1565448278

Identifying a Kaluza Klein Treatment of a Graviton Permitting a Deceleration Parameter
q(z) as an Alternative to Standard DE


The Kaluza-Klein particle is the boson:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1920865#msg1920865

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1921372#msg1921372


Particle production in a gravitational wave background

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1610.02973.pdf

« Last Edit: August 11, 2019, 04:13:34 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #632 on: August 12, 2019, 12:44:16 AM »
LI EFFECT: GRAVITON-PHOTON CONVERSION II

"EM photons having the same frequency and direction as the GWs and suitable phase matching as the GWs, interact directly with GWs in a magnetic field and produce “detection” EM photons that signal the presence of relic HFGWs (high frequency gravitational waves).

The number of EM photons is proportional to the amplitude of the relic HFGWs, A ≈ 10-30, not the square, so that it would be necessary to accumulate such EM photons for only about 1000 seconds in order to achieve relic HFGW detection.

It utilizes a synchro-resonance EM beam  to create a very significant EM signal that propagates not in the direction of the synchro-resonance EM beam and the GW proportional to the amplitude of the GW squared, but perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the GW/EM beam directions.

It is a first-order perturbative photon flux (PPF), proportional to A, not A2."


Perturbative Photon Fluxes Generated by High-Frequency Gravitational Waves and Their Physical Effects

http://www.drrobertbaker.com/docs/Li-Baker%206-22-08.pdf (it includes the peer review data)


Signal Photon Flux and Background Noise in a Coupling Electromagnetic Detecting System for High Frequency Gravitational Waves

http://www.gravwave.com/docs/Li,%20et%20al.%20PRD%2009-9-09%20.pdf


A New Theoretical Technique for the Measurement of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253763726_A_New_Theoretical_Technique_for_the_Measurement_of_High-Frequency_Relic_Gravitational_Waves

http://www.gravwave.com/docs/J.%20of%20Mod.%20Phys%202011.pdf


Searching for high-frequency gravitational waves by ground high field magnetic resonant sweepings

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.06251.pdf


Ultra-High-Intensity Lasers for Gravitational Wave Generation and Detection

http://www.drrobertbaker.com/docs/AIP;%20HFGW%20Laser%20Generator.pdf


Why LIGO can’t detect HFGWs

http://www.gravwave.com/docs/Why%20LIGO%20can't%20detect%20HFGWs.pdf


Tesla used gravitational waves (telluric waves) to send signals/information without any cables/wires ("true wireless").

The Value Estimation of an HFGW Frequency Time Standard for Telecommunications Network Optimization

http://www.gravwave.com/docs/AIP;%20HFGW%20Telecommunications.pdf


The Utilization of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves for Global Communications

http://www.iiisci.org/Journal/CV$/sci/pdfs/HDM219WH.pdf


High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

http://www.gravwave.com/docs/AIP;%20HFGW%20Nuclear%20Fusion.pdf


http://www.gravwave.com/index_2.html

http://www.gravwave.com/chi_joint_project.htm


GASER: Gravitational-wave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0410/0410022.pdf


Can the Gertsenshtein-Zel'dovich effect be used for propulsion, as an alternative to the Biefeld-Brown effect? The answer is yes.


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #633 on: August 12, 2019, 05:47:22 AM »
HIGH FREQUENCY GRAVITATIONAL WAVES PROPULSION: GRAVITON-PHOTON CONVERSION III

The Gertsenshtein-Zel'dovich effect can be used to create electron-positron pairs torsion fields (dextrorotatory subquarks-laevorotatory subquarks) out of the ether wave lattice. This torsion field will then act as a shield against the normal flow/propagation of ether waves (gravitational and electromagnetic), forming an invisible ball lightning sphere around the spacecraft.

https://patents.google.com/patent/US10144532B2/en

Craft using an inertial mass reduction device

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20180229864A1/en

High Frequency Gravitational Wave Generator

Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais
Naval Air War Center Aircraft Division

Both patents are very well written and documented (rivalising with the best patents published by N. Tesla or by T. Townsend Brown).

https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJSPACESE.2015.075910

https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2017-01-2040/


http://www.drrobertbaker.com/docs/Aerospace%20HFGW%20Applications.pdf

http://vixra.org/pdf/1311.0132v3.pdf (Gravitational Wave Generator via Tokamak Physics)

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/86df/b1dcfc60351afdc698cf18c5bd0cc0a622fb.pdf?_ga=2.83449744.769033772.1565527538-1873684905.1565527538 (Gravitational Wave (GW) Radiation Pattern at the Focus of a High-Frequency GW (HFGW) Generator and Aerospace Applications)

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02443.pdf (HFGW/laser plasma interaction)

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.6148.pdf (Electromagnetic and gravitational radiation from the coherent oscillation of electron-positron pairs and fields)

The nuclear fusion tokamak uses a similar design to create/produce electron-positron pairs from the ether wave structure which permeates all of space.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1831695#msg1831695

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1832699#msg1832699

« Last Edit: November 23, 2019, 05:50:50 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #634 on: August 13, 2019, 12:42:11 AM »
SUPERLUMINAL LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS

“The textbooks say nothing can travel faster than light, not even light itself. New experiments show that is no longer true, raising questions about the maximum speed at which we can send information.”

J. Marangos, Faster than a speeding photon

Therefore, when physicists are faced with clear and definite experiments which prove that light can reach superluminal speeds, they have to resort to alternative explanations: superluminal Lorentz transformations (since they have no knowledge of the original set of J.C. Maxwell equations which are invariant under Galilean transformations):

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2168036#msg2168036


Informational field and superluminal communication

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0306/0306073.pdf

On the basis of theoretical research on the superluminal communication problem, one can conclude that there are no basic restrictions that would prohibit him from producing the pulses of electromagnetic field with group velocity exceeding that of light in vacuum. On the other hand, it is evident from experimental research that by now the light barrier has been surmounted and the signal velocity achievable is limited only by the potentialities of experimental equipment.

The basis for the mechanism of superluminal communication considered in this work is the AharonovBohm effect indicative of the field of electromagnetic potentials as a real physical field, which directly influences the behaviour of electron waves.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225456810_Is_Minkowski_Space-Time_Compatible_with_Quantum_Mechanics

The concept of Minkowski space-time is just an approximation which should be avoided in rigorous theoretical constructions.


Tunneling Times and Superluminality: a Tutorial

https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/9811019.pdf

Experiments have shown that individual photons penetrate an optical tunnel barrier with an effective group velocity considerably greater than the vacuum speed of light. The experiments were conducted with a two-photon parametric down-conversion light source, which produced correlated, but random, emissions of photon pairs.


On the theoretical possibility of the electromagnetic scalar potential wave spreading with an arbitrary velocity in vacuum

http://cds.cern.ch/record/548235/files/0204062.pdf


On localized “X-shaped” Superluminal solutions to Maxwell equations

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.591.1319&rep=rep1&type=pdf


Superluminal waves and objects: an overview of the relevant experiments

http://inspirehep.net/record/844904/files/jpconf9_196_012020.pdf


Revisiting the Superluminal Lorentz Transformations and Their Group-Theoretical Properties

http://dinamico2.unibg.it/recami/erasmo%20docs/SomeOld/RevisitingSLTsLNC1982.pdf


Electrodynamics with the scalar field

http://swissenschaft.ch/tesla/content/T_Library/L_Theory/EM%20Field%20Research/ElectrodynamicsWithTheScalarField03.pdf


The introduction of Superluminal Lorentz transformations: A revisitation

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00738808

https://www.academia.edu/22015087/The_introduction_of_Superluminal_Lorentz_transformations_A_revisitation


Revisiting Barry Cox and James Hill's theory of superluminal motion: a possible solution to the problem of spinless tachyon localization

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspa.2014.0541

However, a clever analysis of Einstein's theory soon revealed that the theory rested upon a subtle assumption concerning clock synchronization, as explained in a book by Jammer. In his doctoral thesis at Stanford University, CA, USA (1959), Frank Robert Tangherlini created a theory which adopts a synchronization procedure different from SR, later re-examined by other authors. In spite of its deep significance, Tangherlini's theory is not widely known; even Jammer in his thorough essay ignored it.

The main consequence of Tangherlini's theory is the existence of a PRF which sets unambiguously the past and future of any inertial observer, forbidding any exchange of cause and effect. That is why kinematic objections to tachyons vanish in Tangherlini's theory, which I will subsequently call privileged relativity (PR).


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #635 on: August 13, 2019, 03:57:04 AM »
GERTSENSHTEIN-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT: GRAVITON-PHOTON CONVERSION IV

The Gravity of Photons and the Necessary Rectification of Einstein Equation

http://www.ptep-online.com/2006/PP-04-08.PDF

It is pointed out that Special Relativity together with the principle of causality implies that the gravity of an electromagnetic wave is an accompanying gravitational wave propagating with the same speed. Since a gravitational wave carries energymomentum, this accompanying wave would make the energy-stress tensor of the light to be different from the electromagnetic energy-stress tensor, and thus can produce a geodesic equation for the photons. Moreover, it is found that the appropriate Einstein equation must additionally have the photonic energy-stress tensor with the antigravity coupling in the source term. This would correct that, in disagreement with the calculations for the bending of light, existing solutions of gravity for an electromagnetic wave, is unbounded. This rectification is confirmed by calculating the gravity of electromagnetic plane-waves. The gravity of an electromagnetic wave is indeed an accompanying gravitational wave.


Einstein’s Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne’s Theory for LIGO

http://www.ptep-online.com/2006/PP-05-02.PDF

The theoretical foundation of LIGO’s design is based on the equation of motion derived
by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein’s theory of measurement, shows that
the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is
proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed
bending of light and Einstein’s equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced
displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that
the derivation of Thorne’s formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable
to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein’s equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #636 on: August 13, 2019, 06:36:45 AM »
INVALIDATION OF THE LINEARIZED/WEAK FIELD APPROXIMATION USED IN GENERAL RELATIVITY: A BOUNDED DYNAMIC SOLUTION REQUIRES THE PRESENCE OF AN ANTIGRAVITATIONAL COUPLING TERM

The Necessary Existence of Gravitational Waves and the Repulsive Gravitation

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d92d/7f8b7771e0e3c4df0a25b712d7de2274ed59.pdf


Incompleteness of General Relativity, Einstein's Errors, and Related Experiments

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fc3d/acc6c279bbee452fd190067f1a50e0825414.pdf

General relativity is incomplete since it does not include the gravitational radiation reaction force and the interaction of gravitation with charged particles.  Moreover, there is no bounded dynamic solution for the Einstein equation. Note that the Einstein equation with an electromagnetic wave source has no valid solution unless a photonic energy-stress tensor with an anti-gravitational coupling is added. Thus, the photonic energy includes gravitational energy.

Historically, Einstein's confidence on his theory was based on that he obtained the remaining of the perihelion of Mercury from his equation. However, since the calculation of perihelion of Mercury is based on a perturbation approach to get the influence of other planets, Einstein must show that the perturbation approach is valid. Nevertheless, Gullstrand suspected that the Einstein equation does not have such a solution. Thus, Einstein was awarded a Nobel Prize for his photo-electric effects instead of general relativity as many theorists expected.


Errors of the Wheeler School, the Distortions to General Relativity and the Damage to Education in MIT Open Courses in Physics

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/432f/4c2f76f6ea7235981e9a0131973e9d0aabe2.pdf


https://www.scribd.com/document/159984022/On-the-Question-of-Dynamic-Solution-in-General-Relativity

The reason, as shown, is that bounded dynamic solutions actually do not exist. For the dynamic case, the non-linear Einstein equation and its linearization also cannot have compatible solutions.

The existence of a dynamic solution requires an additional gravitational energy-momentum tensor with an antigravity coupling.

The issue of dynamic solutions in general relativity existed from the beginning of this theory until currently. The question started with the calculation of the perihelion of Mercury. In 1915 Einstein obtained the expected value of the remaining perihelion with his theory, and thus was confident of its correctness. The subsequent confirmation of the bending of light, further boosted his confidence. However, unexpectedly the base of his confidence was questioned by Gullstrand, the Chairman of the Nobel Prize for Physics. The perihelion of Mercury is actually a many-body problem, but Einstein had not shown that his calculation could be derived from such a necessary step. Thus, Mathematician D. Hilbert, who approved Einstein's initial calculation, did not come to its defense.


The Errors in the Fields Medals, 1982 to S. T. Yau and 1990 to E. Witten

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e43d/4ca7c2c872d6cbe924ff0de77596670c7bc7.pdf


The Repulsive Gravitation and Errors of Einstein

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6057/f99c6fcb7ffdb7584749aeb345b97a7e8a79.pdf


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253111937_Compatibility_with_Einstein's_Notion_of_Weak_Gravity_Einstein's_Equivalence_Principle_and_the_Absence_of_Dynamic_Solutions_for_the_1915_Einstein_Equation


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328719305_The_Weight_Reduction_of_Charged_Capacitors_Charge-Mass_Interaction_and_Einstein's_Unification


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307855795_On_the_Test_of_Newton's_Inverse_Square_Law_and_Unification_of_Gravitation_and_Electromagnetism_--_the_questionable_accurate_gravitational_constant_of_J_Luo_--


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234454208_Einstein's_Radiation_Formula_and_Modifications_to_the_Einstein_Equation


THE NECESSITY OF UNIFYING GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM, MASS-CHARGE REPULSIVE EFFECTS, AND THE FIVE DIMENSIONAL THEORY

https://web.archive.org/web/20170809101844/http://www.cqfyl.com/20080220.pdf


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289230809_The_Question_of_Validity_of_the_Dynamic_Solutions''_Constructed_by_Christodoulou_and_Klainerman


The Question of Space-Time Singularities in General Relativity and Einstein's Errors

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f37e/0331ac59feb7e5101f98da743f419a2b1d90.pdf
 

The American Physical Society and Errors in Gravitation

https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume17/3-The-American-Physical-Society.pdf


Comments on “Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism by Mohammed A. El-Lakany” & Einstein’s Unification

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2530/bb8b8a98bba6feabeec908051bbb03e1d404.pdf


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/252591908_Radiation_reaction_force_and_unification_of_electromagnetic_and_gravitational_fields


The non-locality of the gravitational wave reflects that the Einstein equation misses a term, the energy-momentum tensor with the anti-gravity coupling.  This missing term is
also the reason that the Einstein equation does not have any dynamic solution.

Dr. C.Y. Lo
PhD Mathematics, Queen's University
PhD Physics, MIT




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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #637 on: August 14, 2019, 01:16:44 AM »
SUPERLUMINAL SPEED OF THE ANTIGRAVITATIONAL TORSION FIELD

The speed of gravity revisited

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/9910/9910050.pdf

Using the Heaviside-Lorentz equations as a guide, the authors prove that the speed of gravity cannot be superluminal.

Even O. Heaviside proved as much in 1893:

http://sergf.ru/Heavisid.htm

However, this fact causes a huge problem for physicists since there is multiple astrophysical data which proves that the speed of gravity must be superluminal:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1943468#msg1943468 (four consecutive messages)

The reduction in weight of a capacitor (Biefeld-Brown effect), or of a granite block subjected to acoustic levitation, occurs only when the electron-positron pairs will form an invisibile superluminal tornado/torsion field around the object itself, that is when the antigravitational effect start to appear.

We have to go back to Planck's third quantum theory to infer the existence of the ether lattice (zero point energy).

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226789463_Physics_of_the_Zero-Point_Field_Implications_for_Inertia_Gravitation_and_Mass

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13386630_Gravity_as_a_zero-point-fluctuation_force

In a letter of 1915 to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in Leiden Planck wrote: “I have almost completed an improved formulation of the quantum hypothesis applied to thermal radiation. I am more convinced than ever that zero-point energy is an indispensable element. Indeed, I believe I have the strongest evidence for it."

Preludes to dark energy: Zero-point energy and vacuum speculations

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1111/1111.4623.pdf

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271856987_The_ether_theory_as_implying_that_electromagnetism_is_the_Newtonian_approximation_of_general_relativity

http://www.calphysics.org/articles/zpf_apj.pdf


Reviewing the Zero Point Energy

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/34a3/c4118bfa21884103ea81788bd6c5a248ee27.pdf


Ball lightning (the electron-positron torsion field) cannot be explained using either the most sophisticated forms of GR or the Heaviside-Lorentz equations.

Ball lightning travels independently of the atmosphere. It can pass through windows, a 2-ft thick wall, or airplane fuselages with ease.

A Conjecture Concerning Ball Lightning

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1609/1609.04238.pdf

A ball lightning is a port connecting our overt space to a covert space with similar but not identical properties.

P.A. Sturrock, Stanford University

http://lib.iszf.irk.ru/The%20Atmosphere%20and%20Ionosphere.%20Dynamics,%20Processes&%20Monitoring%20(Bychkov%20V.L.,%20et%20al.%20-%202010)/chapter6.pdf


Ball lightning acts as a portal between the invisible ether lattice and the atmosphere. Since the speed of gravity is thought to be the same as that of light (based on the Heaviside-Lorentz equations), it follows from the Biefeld-Brown experiments and the acoustic levitation of granite blocks that the speed of the antigravitational torsion field must be superluminal.

What, then, causes this superluminal speed of the electron-positron (D-subquarks and L-subquarks) torsion field?

« Last Edit: August 14, 2019, 01:18:38 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #638 on: August 15, 2019, 01:48:17 AM »
SUPERLUMINAL RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION SOUND WAVES: STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE

Quantum physics cannot explain the strong nuclear force at all (the Yukawa pion exchange proposal).

http://physicsdetective.com/the-nuclear-disaster/

http://physicsdetective.com/the-nuclear-force/

http://thestrongforce.canalblog.com/

What binding force, then, holds the atomic nuclei together?

Ether physicists cannot explain the etheric strong nuclear force either, ever since it was first described in the Occult Chemistry classic treatise.

http://www.subtleenergies.com/ormus/oc/chaptr01.htm

"A sphere-wall is a temporary effect, caused by one or more Anu in rotation. Just as a stream of air under pressure will make a hole on the surface of water, by pushing back that water, so is it with the groups. As they revolve, the force of their motion drives back the circumambient medium. That medium thus driven back by the atom element as it moves round its axis is the space around it which is filled with millions of loose Anu.

Two Anu, positive and negative, brought near to each other, attract each other, and then commence to revolve round each other, forming a relatively stable duality; such a molecule is neutral. Combinations of three or more Anu are positive, negative or neutral, according to the internal molecular arrangement; the neutral are relatively stable, the positive and negative are continually in search of their respective opposites, with a view to establishing a relatively permanent union.

Speaking generally, positive groups are marked by the points of Anu being turned outward and negative groups by the points being turned inward towards each other and the centre of the group.

The groups show all kinds of possible combinations; the combinations spin, turn head over heels, and gyrate in endless ways. Each aggregation is surrounded with an apparent cell-wall, a circle or oval, due to the pressure on the surrounding matter caused by its whirling motion. The surrounding fields strike on each other and the groups and rebound, dart hither and thither, for reasons we have not distinguished."



The distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function is related to the model of the energy levels in a heavy nucleus.

https://www.ias.edu/ideas/2013/primes-random-matrices

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.07481.pdf

Riemann zeta function model of the boson:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2006301#msg2006301

These Riemann zeta function sound waves rotate at the speed of light in normal matter, and achieve superluminal speeds manifested in certain phenomena: biochirality (plants, animals, humans; antigravitational effects) and ball lightning.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1885655#msg1885655

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1774536#msg1774536

The boson strings inside a subquark are kept in rotation by the same kind of mechanism, as are the various kinds of subquark geometries (quarks, mesons, baryons) and the ether drift field itself which rotates above the Earth.

The invisible Riemann zeta function sound waves are the strong nuclear force.

Ball lightning is due to scalar electromagnetic interferometry which can produce a controlled pattern of electromagnetic energy at a distance.

The energy sphere created by the Whittaker scalar waves will attract the telluric currents (longitudinal subquark waves) which will be diverted from their usual path to eventually form a self-sustaining oscillation in the form of a ball lightning object.

Whittaker scalar waves superpotentials and ball lightning:

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1308/1308.3932.pdf

Superluminal Whittaker waves:

https://www.hrastovic-inzenjering.hr/primjena-energije/energetski-clanci/alternativne-tehnologije/item/1110-nikola-tesla-death-ray.html (Soviet scalar weapon section)

« Last Edit: August 15, 2019, 01:55:21 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #639 on: August 16, 2019, 01:51:16 AM »
KALUZA-WEYL SPACE/AETHER DRAINHOLE PARTICLES

Dr. H.G. Ellis introduced the concept of the ETHER DRAINHOLE for the first time in 1969 (see also the wikipedia pages for the "Ellis drainhole" and the "Ellis wormhole").

Ether flow through a drainhole: A particle model in general relativity
Journal of Mathematical Physics. 14: 104–118

http://euclid.colorado.edu/~ellis/RelativityPapers/EtFlThDrPaMoGeRe.pdf

Since the derivation of the field equations was very rigorous, the reviewers had no choice but to accept the publication, in a mainstream journal, of the concept of an ether drainhole.

Dr. H.G. Ellis peer-reviewed papers:

http://euclid.colorado.edu/~ellis/


Dr. Ellis also merged Weyl's affine connection with Kaluza's five-dimensional theory:

SPACE-TIME--TIME: FIVE-DIMENSIONAL KALUZA–WEYL SPACE

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0107023.pdf

The result is a natural hybrid of the Kaluza and the Weyl geometries that retains and enhances the most useful characters of its parents while attenuating to benign and useful form those that have caused difficulty. Most notably, it retains both Kaluza’s extra dimension and Weyl’s association of metrical with electromagnetic gauge changes. Also, it converts the objectionable nonintegrability of length transference in the Weyl geometry to integrability without sacrificing the principle that length, because it is a comparative measure, depends on selection of a scale at each point, that is, on choice of a gauge. In the process it lends to the fifth dimension an essential significance that the Kaluza geometry fails to provide. This significance arises from a geometrical construction that compels interpretation of the fifth dimension as a secondary temporal dimension, in contrast to its more usual interpretation as a spatial dimension whose unobservability has to be excused.

The coordinate transformations that generate the electromagnetic and the metrical gauge transformations, being coordinate transformations, do not alter the metric of spacetime--time. This is a principal advantage that the space-time--time geometry has over the Weyl geometry. Weyl, working without the aid of a fifth dimension, impressed his infinitude of conformally related space-time metrics onto one four-dimensional manifold. That is very much like drawing all the maps of the world on a single sheet of paper, a practice that would conserve paper but confound navigators. In effect, the space-time--time geometry economizes on paper but avoids the confusion of maps on maps, by drawing a selection of the maps on individual sheets, then stacking the sheets so that each of the remaining maps can be generated on command by slicing through the stack in a particular way. The Kaluza–Klein geometry does much the same, but the cylinder condition restricts its stack to multiple copies of a single map, with no new maps producible by slicing.


Einstein’s Real “Biggest Blunder”

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5552.pdf

What has gone unrecognized for almost a century is that already in 1916 Einstein had made a real blunder by failing to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. That he confused the two becomes clear upon a careful reading of §16 of his paper Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie, in which he sought to extend his tensorial field equations for empty space to the case in which space is permeated by a continuous distribution of gravitating matter.


COSMOLOGY WITHOUT EINSTEIN’S ASSUMPTION THAT INERTIAL MASS PRODUCES GRAVITY

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0701012.pdf

Giving up Einstein’s assumption, implicit in his 1916 field equations, that inertial mass, even in its appearance as energy, is equivalent to active gravitational mass and therefore is a source of gravity allows revising the field equations to a form in which a positive cosmological constant is seen to (mis)represent a uniform negative net mass density of gravitationally attractive and gravitationally repulsive matter. Field equations with both positive and negative active gravitational mass densities of both primordial and continuously created matter incorporated, along with two scalar fields to ‘relax the constraints’ on the space-time geometry, yield cosmological solutions.


SPACE-TIME--TIME

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0205029.pdf


Quantum effects from a purely geometrical relativity theory

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/24/1/026/pdf


Cosmic acceleration, inflation, dark matter, and dark ‘energy’ in one neat package

http://euclid.colorado.edu/~ellis/RelativityPapers/CoAcInDaMaDaEnOnNePa.prd.alt.pdf

In creating his gravitational field equations Einstein unjustifiedly assumed that inertial mass, even in its equivalent form as energy, is a source of gravity. Denying this assumption allows modifying the field equations to a form in which a positive cosmological constant appears as a uniform density of gravitationally repulsive matter. Field equations with both positive and negative active gravitational mass densities incorporated along with a scalar field coupled to geometry with nostandard polarity yield cosmological solutions.


Cosmic inflation, deceleration, acceleration, dark matter, and dark ‘energy’ in one coherent package

http://euclid.colorado.edu/~ellis/RelativityPapers/CoInDeAcDaMaDaEnOnCoPa.rev2011.pdf


What Causes the Electron to Weigh?

http://library.uc.edu.kh/userfiles/pdf/42.What%20is%20the%20electron.pdf (pgs 136-161 of the pdf document, pgs 129-154 of the treatise)


Three Logical Proofs: The Five-Dimensional Reality of Space-Time

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ee33/5fbf33ba621e189fc5452ba4438f85fdabfa.pdf


http://www.subtleenergies.com/ormus/oc/chaptr01.htm

In this ultimate state of physical matter two types of units, or Anu, have been observed; they are alike in everything save the direction of their whorls and of the force which pours through them. In the one case force pours in from the "outside," from fourth-dimensional space, the Astral plane, and passing through the Anu, pours into the physical world. In the second, it pours in from the physical world, and out through the Anu into the "outside" again, i.e., vanishes from the physical world. The one is like a spring, from which water bubbles out; the other is like a hole, into which water disappears.



The dextrorotatory subquark (gravitational) and the laevorotatory subquark (electromagnetic).


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2037796#msg2037796 (the sealed plastic bottle brought down from an altitude of 4,300 m to sea-level: an exemplification of the aether drainhole theory which causes the plastic bottle to implode)


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #640 on: August 20, 2019, 09:51:45 AM »
INVALIDATION OF THE LINEARIZED/WEAK FIELD APPROXIMATION USED IN GENERAL RELATIVITY: A BOUNDED DYNAMIC SOLUTION REQUIRES THE PRESENCE OF AN ANTIGRAVITATIONAL COUPLING TERM II













On the question of a dynamic solution in general relativity

https://www.tsijournals.com/articles/magnetoacoustic-resonance-modes-in-coler-type-apparatus.pdf


Linearization of the Einstein Equation and The 1993 Press Release of the Nobel Prize in Physics

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/28d8/db055f7258cd6151cde8964ca573e27e287b.pdf


The Gravitational Wave and Einstein Equation

https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/354


https://www.scribd.com/document/122817396/Errors-of-Wald-on-General-Relativity

Dr. C.Y. Lo


A paper by T. Levi-Civita in 1917, one of the inventors of Tensor Calculus, showing that Einstein's pseudo-tensor is nonsense because it leads to the requirement for a first-order, intrinsic, differential invariant, which, as is well known to the pure mathematicians, does not exist:

http://web.archive.org/web/20090902090420/http://www.sjcrothers.plasmaresources.com/Levi-Civita.pdf


The anti-gravitational coupling term for the Biefeld-Brown effect was derived for the first time by H. Weyl in 1917:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2177793#msg2177793

http://www.jp-petit.org/papers/cosmo/1917-Weyl-en.pdf


KHARUK-PASTON-SHEYKIN-OBUKHOV-PONOMAREV-KRECHET UFT: UNIFICATION OF THE GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2192962#msg2192962



https://www.academia.edu/16201568/Finishing_Einstein_Point_by_Point_The_unification_of_quantum_and_relativity
 
"For his part, Einstein envisioned the four dimensional space-time continuum of our world as a unified field out of which both gravity and electromagnetism emerged. He further hoped that the quantum would emerge as an over-restriction of field conditions. His worldview was that of a purely three dimensional brain logical external world. He seemed unable to completely break loose from his positivistic semi-Newtonian beliefs and perspective. However, from the perspective of the non-Newtonian fourth spatial dimension (or a five-dimensional space-time), the four dimensional expanse of space is filled with a single field of potential that is the precursor to everything that exists in three dimensional space – gravity, electricity, magnetism, matter, quantum, life, mind and even consciousness. These physical ‘things’ are just different aspects of field interactions (single field density patterns or complexes) modified by the physical constants that describe the physical nature of the single field."









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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #641 on: September 12, 2019, 06:41:41 AM »
PROJEKT KRONOS II: ANTI-TIME RESEARCH

Time has a rate of flow.

Time = terrestrial gravity = the effect of the dextrorotatory subquarks on matter

Anti-time = antigravitational force

The greatest expert on the flow of time was Dr. Nikolai Kozyrev:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1922302#msg1922302

In order to REVERSE the effects of time, matter needs to be subjected to anti-time, that is, to double torsion physics.

That is why the Kronos Projekt was awarded the priority classification "Kriegsentscheidend"  the highest known category of secrecy and funding priority known in the Third Reich, everything else (including the UFOs projects) was secondary.


Mainstream science has begun, recently, the study of reversing the effects of time, in the context of spacetime relativity:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0701084.pdf


Russian research on the reversal of time:

http://www.free-energy-devices.com/Issue12.pdf


A.D. Sakharov's memorable article on the relationship between vacuum quantum fluctuations and the theory of gravitation:

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.732.841&rep=rep1&type=pdf


The reversal of time flow currently anticipated is on the order of fractions of a second.

But that is not what the Vril Society of Germany was after.

They wanted to reverse the flow of time for a single subject by hours, days, weeks, months and even years, using double torsion technology.




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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #642 on: September 29, 2019, 03:42:47 AM »
GENERALIZED SAGNAC EFFECT VII

https://web.infn.it/GINGER/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/sagnac_AJP.pdf

The Sagnac effect and pure geometry

American Journal of Physics 83, 427 (2015)

Dr. A. Tartaglia and Dr. M.L. Ruggiero are two of the best known experts in ring laser interferometry and relativity in rotation frames in the world.


They present TWO FORMULAS for the Sagnac effect: amazingly and paradoxically these distinguished authors do not seem to infer the consequences of the two derivations.


The first formula, derived using differential geometry (page 3 of the pdf document), is this:

Δt = 4Aω/c2

A = area enclosed by the path of the light beams


Then, the authors derive A SECOND FORMULA for the Sagnac effect, which DOES NOT feature an area:




This formula does not include the area at all, and is proportional to the VELOCITY of the light beams (and thus is proportional to the RADIUS of rotation).


Two different formulas, featuring two different physical descriptions.

This means that the formulas must be describing TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL PHENOMENA.


The first formula, which displays the AREA of the interferometer, is actually the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula:

https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/087/05/0071

Spinning Earth and its Coriolis effect on the circuital light beams

The final formula is this:

dt = 4ωA/c2


If the second formula is actually the true SAGNAC EFFECT formula, which does not and cannot feature the area, then we have a most interesting situation.

For the Michelson-Gale experiment of 1925, Albert Michelson derived a formula which does exhibits the AREA:

4ΩAsinΦ/c2

(Φ is the latitude)


Now, we have to ask a question which has escaped the attention of the best physicists in the world for the past 100 years:

What is the corresponding formula for the Michelson-Gale interferometer which does not display an area and which is proportional to the velocity of the light beams?

Obviously, we now have to deal with two velocities for each side of the interferometer, v1 and v2, not to mention the two different lengths of each side.


Tartaglia and Ruggiero derived TWO formulas for the same phenomenon, but which obviously carry two very different physical and mathematical characteristics: one is proportional to the area of the interferometer, the other one is not.


Here, then, is the correct derivation of the SECOND FORMULA, which does not feature an area, for the Michelson-Gale interferometer:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2117351#msg2117351

Δt =  2(V1L1 + V2L2)/c2





A generalization of the second formula derived by Tartaglia and Ruggiero (2vl/c2).


« Last Edit: September 29, 2019, 03:53:15 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #643 on: October 01, 2019, 02:41:15 AM »
ELECTROGRAVITY III

Using Hermann Weyl's electrovacuum solutions, Professor S.D. Majumdar found the relationship between gravitational and electrostatic forces (Biefeld-Brown effect).

https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.72.390



The Weyl-Majumdar-Papapetrou-Ivanov solution is the exact formula for the Biefeld-Brown effect:





https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0507082.pdf

Weyl electrovacuum solutions and gauge invariance
Dr. B.V. Ivanov

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0502047.pdf

On the gravitational field induced by static electromagnetic sources
Dr. B.V Ivanov

Nipher electrogravitational experiments:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852840#msg1852840


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #644 on: October 02, 2019, 10:26:42 PM »
GENERALIZED SAGNAC EFFECT VIII: STOKES' THEOREM



According to Stokes' rule an integration of angular velocity Ω over an area A is substituted by an integration of tangential component of translational velocity v along the closed line of length L limiting the given area:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2023979#msg2023979





For each interferometer there will ALWAYS be two formulas: one is proportional to the area (CORIOLIS EFFECT), the other one is proportional to the velocity (SAGNAC EFFECT).



In the case where the interferometer will be located away from the center of rotation (MGX/RLGs), there will be a factor of proportionality: R/L, where R = radius of the Earth.



This factor of proportionality was proven, for the first time, for the LISA Space Antenna:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1985230#msg1985230



« Last Edit: October 06, 2019, 02:08:53 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #645 on: October 03, 2019, 03:45:55 AM »
GENERALIZED SAGNAC EFFECT IX: FOC/FOG TURNS FORMULA

In most debates, it is the contention of some physicists that for a circular coil with N turns, there will be a term featuring the area in the SAGNAC EFFECT formula; then N would be multiplied by the circumference of the circular coil and by the radius, even though there is no area at all, just a segment light path.

However, this is completely wrong.

The N turns term is multiplied by the velocity and the length of the fiber coil.

Professor R. Wang, world's foremost expert in FOC/FOG, explains:

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609235.pdf





This is the correct expression for the SAGNAC EFFECT formula for FOC/FOG interferometers:

Δt = 2VL/c2

L = N x l

V = R x Ω

R is not multiplied by (N x l) at all: the velocity (V = R x Ω) is multiplied by L (L = N x l).


Professor Ruyong Wang has proven the Sagnac effect applies to uniform/translational/linear motion:

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609222.pdf

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609202.pdf

http://web.stcloudstate.edu/ruwang/ION58PROCEEDINGS.pdf

SAGNAC EFFECT WITHOUT AN AREA OR A LOOP

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609202.pdf



This experiment shows us two important points. First, it confirms the phase reversal of a PCM and demonstrates the Sagnac effect in an arc segment AB, not a closed path. Second, it gives us important implications: The result, φ = 4πRΩL/cλ, can be re-written as φ = 4πvL/cλ where v is the speed of the moving arc segment AB (where R is the radius of the circular motion, Ω is the rotational rate).

If we increase the radius of the circular motion as shown in Fig. 6, the arc segment AB will approach a linear segment AB, the circular motion will approach the linear motion, the phase-conjugate Sagnac experiment will approach the phase-conjugate first-order experiment as shown in Fig. 4, and the phase shift is always φ = 4πvL/cλ.


That is why in Professor Yeh's final formula for the SAGNAC EFFECT, one multiplies the radius by the angular velocity to obtain the velocity; and this term is multiplied by the length:



φ = -2(φ2 - φ1) = 4π(R1L1 + R2L2)Ω/λc = 4π(V1L1 + V2L2)/λc

Since Δφ = 2πc/λ x Δt, Δt = 2(R1L1 + R2L2)Ω/c2 = 2(V1L1 + V2L2)/c2

CORRECT SAGNAC FORMULA:

2(V1L1 + V2L2)/c2


My formula is identical to (coincides with) Professor Yeh's equation:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2117351#msg2117351

2(V1L1 + V2L2)/c2

Let V1 = R1 x Ω

Let V2 = R2 x Ω

2(R1ΩL1 + R2ΩL2)/c2

=

2(R1L1 + R2L2)Ω/c2


Now, since the factor of proportionality for the interferometer which is located away from the center of rotation is R/L, we can infer immediately the form of the SAGNAC EFFECT formula which does feature the velocity and is related directly to the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula by Stokes' theorem (we ignore the latitude).




R/L = y/{4Aω/c2}

y = 4Aω/c2 x R/L = 4VL/c2, where V = R x ω

That is, the SAGNAC EFFECT formula MUST HAVE the form: 4VL/c2.


2(R1L1 + R2L2)Ω/c2

Since R1 and R2, and L1 and L2, respectively, have values which are very close to each other, this formula simplifies to: 4VL/c2, which is exactly the formula obtained using Stokes' theorem.

« Last Edit: October 06, 2019, 02:08:04 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #646 on: October 04, 2019, 12:32:20 AM »
DECEMBER 10, 2011 SELENELION



https://communicatescience.com/zoonomian/2011/12/10/total-lunar-eclipse-10th-december-2011



https://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/observing-news/december-10ths-colorful-lunar-eclipse/







Lunar Eclipse as seen from San Diego CA - Dec 10, 2011



Lunar Eclipse as seen from southern New Mexico - Dec 10, 2011


"At what point during the day did the moon stop being in the sky and pass the threshold to become a refraction/reflection/mirage? There had to be a point somewhere where it happened."


But the refraction of the atmosphere argument pales in comparison with the fact that the shadow is on top:

http://worldreality.yolasite.com/selenelion--the-impossible-eclipse.php

"I found a few diagrams tying to explain the Sun and Moon visible above the horizon at the same time."

All show a shadow on the bottom of the Moon as expected.







"I can tell you haven't thought about it. Look at the model they say proves this. Then look at the "shadow" of earth on the moon. you really don't see the problem? Saying something you were taught with faith alone does not prove anything. can we agree on this statement?? "Like the sun, we always consider the moon as rising in the east and setting in the west." this statement is fact. So if the moon is traveling to the right, so would the sun.  The shadow is traveling the WRONG way.  Model where the earth is, where the sun is, where the moon is, and how the shadow looks when projected over the moon. The moon is setting to the right, the sun is rising from the left. You can tell this by looking at the moon and seeing where it HAS TO BE in order to be lighting up the face of the moon. The curve is upside down, traveling the wrong way. It's not a projection/mirage because it's clear as day and isn't inverted. The moon image is the correct orientation, everything else is wrong. moon traveling left to right as it sets. Correct? What part of earth would be blocking light from hitting the moon? The top of the earth, correct? Which way would a shadow of the top of the earth move across the moon in that situation? Which way is it traveling, and does it look like the top of a globe? The shadow is coming across the moon the wrong direction and the curve is the wrong way. You see what would be a shadow of the bottom of the earth, traveling downwards. can you REALLY not see that?

Can we agree that to us, the sun and the moon  both are seen to travel overhead in the same direction, rises in the east and sets in the west?
So now you can model this.
Here's why you are wrong, using known facts. If "on a full moon, as was on Dec 11, 2011", the moon sets in the morning, at sunrise. So if the moon is setting in the west in this video as is true, the sun is rising at the same time from the east. Now do you see the problem yet? The shadow is incorrect, the moon isn't flipped over so it cant be from a lensing effect or it would appear upside down. It isn't a mirage because mirages are wavy and not perfectly clear. It's oriented the correct way, yet everything else is wrong. if you can't see it, that's ok... but don't tell people who actually use their brains they are wrong when you didn't and only repeated what you were told. Proof is right there for you to see. You just need to actually do the proof yourself."

« Last Edit: October 04, 2019, 12:43:08 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #647 on: October 04, 2019, 07:18:05 AM »
JULY 27, 2018 SELENELION


One of the most beautiful total lunar eclipses ever filmed (Norway, 24 hr midnight sun phenomenon, the moon is high up, the selenelion seems to last for some six hours):




Lunar eclipse Allais effect:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2138487#msg2138487


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #648 on: October 05, 2019, 08:48:02 AM »
CORIOLIS-SAGNAC EFFECT FORMULA FOR RLGs/MGX EXPERIMENTS



The first line integral is the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula. The last line integral represents the SAGNAC EFFECT formula.

Stokes' theorem proves that for each interferometer there will ALWAYS be two formulas to deal with: one is proportional to the area of the interferometer, the other one is proportional to the velocity of the light beams.

Proof:

The R/L factor of proportionality for an interferometer whose center of rotation does not coincide with its geometrical center was derived for the first time for the LISA Space Antenna. Given the huge cost of the entire project, the best experts in the field (CalTech, ESA) were called upon to provide the necessary theoretical calculations for the total phase shift of the interferometer. To everyone's surprise, and for the first time since Sagnac and Michelson and Gale, it was found that the ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT is much greater than the CORIOLIS EFFECT.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1985230#msg1985230

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1989098#msg1989098

The factor of proportionality was found to be R/L.



R is the actual radius of rotation.

L is the side of the interferometer.


If the center of rotation of the interferometer does coincide with its geometrical center, then the formula becomes:



Thus we can see the huge discrepancy between the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula and the SAGNAC EFFECT formula for the MGX/RLGs (Michelson-Gale experiment/Ring Laser Gyroscopes).

There is NO velocity term for the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula: 4Aω/c2.

Therefore, if the interferometer itself is being rotated, and the RADIUS of rotation is R, then the SAGNAC EFFECT will be proportional to the velocity, V = R x ω.


A = L x l (long side multiplied by the short side)

Then, 4Aω = 4Vωl, where Vω = L x ω.

That is, the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula is equivalent to a SAGNAC EFFECT formula where the RADIUS of rotation now becomes L.

Since the RADIUS of rotation in the MGX/RLGs is actually the radius of the Earth, it becomes obvious that the SAGNAC EFFECT formula will be greater than the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula by at least a factor of R/l (interferometer in the shape of a rectangle), exactly the term found by CalTech and ESA for the LISA Space Antenna.

« Last Edit: October 06, 2019, 02:10:37 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #649 on: October 09, 2019, 08:46:03 AM »
LUNAR ECLIPSE ALLAIS EFFECT II

The excess of light into the shadow onto the Moon during lunar eclipses and its enlargement cannot be caused by the Earth's atmospheric refraction.

Both phenomena are encountered during lunar eclipses and selenelions.

Dr. P. Marmet has carefully investigated the enlargement of the shadow:

However, numerous reports show that the umbra-penumbra limit appears significantly displaced on the moon during an eclipse.

There is another factor about the atmosphere that has not been discussed. Light rays passing through the atmosphere are naturally bent because the atmosphere acts like a prism. This is why, during an eclipse, the Moon surface is never completely black but reddish: the red part of the solar spectrum passing through the low atmosphere is the only part scattered on the Moon in the region of totality before being reflected back to us on Earth.
        An hypothetical observer located on the Moon would see those rays being refracted by the Earth atmosphere and the Sun would appear bigger. Consequently, this second effect makes the Sun rays converge due to a lensing effect of our atmosphere. Therefore, due to that lensing effect, the umbra projected on the Moon would be smaller. This refraction by the Earth atmosphere gives an effect that is contrary to the observations claiming that the Earth's shadow must be larger due to the thickness of the atmosphere.

In his paper he proposes that the enlargement is actually an optical illusion; however, the second phenomenon which takes place during lunar eclipses, the excess of light into the shadow onto the Moon cannot be dismissed as an optical illusion.

"It was suggested that the brightness anomaly of the umbral region during an eclipse of the  Moon would be caused by refraction of sunlight through the upper regions of the Earth`s atmosphere. The red coloring arises because, they say, sunlight reaching the Moon must pass through a long and dense layer of the Earth`s atmosphere, where it is scattered. Shorter wavelengths are more likely to be scattered by the small particles and so, by the time the light has passed through the atmosphere, the longer wavelengths dominate. This resulting light we perceive as red. The amount of refracted light depends on the amount of dust or clouds in the atmosphere; this also controls how much light is scattered. In general, the dustier the atmosphere, the more that other wavelengths of light will be removed (compared to red light), leaving the resulting light a deeper red color.
Despite this reasoning, it has been found that towards the centre the umbra is too bright to be accounted for by refraction of visible sunlight. F. Link proposed that this excess be interpreted as luminescence. He concluded that about 10 percent of the Moon`s optical radiation is caused by luminescence. Observations seem to confirm the existence of lunar luminescence."

"What about major volcanic eruptions? These can loft many cubic kilometers of dust into the Earth's stratosphere, where it spreads around the globe and persists for many months. Nine months after a huge eruption of Mount Agung on Bali, the Moon became as dim as a star of visual magnitude 4.1 during the legendary total eclipse of December 30, 1963. But the 615 crater timings Sky & Telescope received from that event show an umbra size quite typical of most other eclipses, bright or dark."

The ozone layer cannot be responsible for the enlargement of the umbral size.

"It is suggested in "Celestial Shadows" [5] that the ozone layer absorption is responsible for the umbral enlargement, yet this is much lower than the notional eclipsing layer of around 85km [6]."

Dr. Marmet again, using the official science prerogatives for the introduction:

 We know that astronomical data give us accurate values of the radii of the Sun, the Earth and the Moon. Furthermore the knowledge of their relative distances gives us accurate predictions of the exact instant when the umbra-penumbra limit sweeps some specific crater on the moon during lunar eclipses.
        However, numerous reports show that the umbra-penumbra limit appears significantly displaced on the moon during an eclipse. It is believed that the thickness of the Earth atmosphere is responsible for that displacement. The article of Roger W. Sinnott ("Readers Gauge the Umbra Again", in Sky & Telescope, April 1983, p. 387) illustrates this interpretation of the shadow's enlargement in his statement: "It [the atmosphere] always increases slightly the silhouette of our globe in forming the sharply defined central region of the shadow called the umbra." Similar conclusions are also presented by Sinnott in "A Tale of Two Eclipses" (Sky & Telescope, December 1992, p. 678). Therefore, it could be implied that crater timings during full lunar eclipses can be used as a tool to evaluate the degree of pollution of our atmosphere.
        A similar result has also been claimed by Byron W. Soulsby in "Lunar Eclipse Crater Timing Programme" (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 95, Number 1, p.18) where he writes:

"Each eclipse can exhibit oblateness variations due in the main to the conditions prevailing in the Earth's atmosphere at the time of the event, particularly when large volcanic eruptions have occurred before the observations are made."
        In order to study more deeply that phenomenon, it is important to evaluate if the reported increase of 2% of the Earth's shadow at the Moon corresponds to a reasonable value of the height at which the atmosphere is opaque. Calculations give that this amount corresponds to an altitude of 92 km on the Earth.
        This usual interpretation of the umbral enlargement forces us to believe that the atmosphere is normally opaque up to 92 km or so. But how can that be when at that altitude, the air is so extremely rarefied? It is near the altitude at which a satellite can orbit around the Earth.
        In fact, according to "Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars" (Kenneth R. Lang, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992, p. 36), the atmospheric pressure at 90 km above sea level is about half a million times smaller than that at sea level. Above 15 km, the atmosphere becomes relatively transparent to light, since 90% of the air and almost all the humidity and pollution are below that level. That makes an umbral enlargement due to the opacity of the atmosphere of only 0.3% which is much smaller than the 2.0 % reported.
        Furthermore, the eruption of volcanos cannot explain the umbral enlargement. According to Patrick McCormick (Sky & Telescope, October 1982, p.390), the altitude reached by some material ejected from volcano El Chichon "is in the stratosphere, some 26 kilometers (16 miles) above Earth's surface - roughly 50 percent higher than material from even the famous Mount St. Helens.". So since the atmosphere does not appear to be responsible for the umbra-penumbra limit displacement of 2% on the moon, then what causes it?


Moreover, the ozone layer argument cannot be used for another important reason.

"Ozone, though heavier than oxygen, is absent in the lower layers of the atmosphere, is present in the upper layers, and is not subject to the “mixing effect of the wind.” The presence of ozone high in the atmosphere suggests that oxygen must be still higher: “As oxygen is less dense than ozone, it will tend to rise to even greater heights.” Nowhere is it asked why ozone does not descend of its own weight or at least why it is not mixed by the wind with other gases."






What, then, could possibly be the cause of the excessive brightness?









So, only coronal mass ejections shock waves could be the source of energy for the wide area lunar luminescence phenomena.

However, the CME shock waves can only occur in the context of the ether solar theory (electric sun theory):

https://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2005/arch05/050624protonstorm.htm

Then on January 20 the fifth explosion produced a coronal mass ejection (CME) that achieved velocities incomparably greater than anything astronomers had seen before.

Powerful ejections can throw off a billion tons of solar material. Normally they travel relatively slowly. “Even the fastest ones, traveling one to two thousand km/s, take a day or so to reach Earth. You know a CME has just arrived when you see auroras in the sky”.

But how does the ejected material attain its observed speeds? Even common ejections travel faster and faster as they move outward from the Sun, achieving speeds up to a thousand miles per second or more. This acceleration, the theory surmises, can be explained by the “shock waves” that the CME produces. “Shock waves in front of the CME can accelerate these protons in our direction—hence the proton storm”.

But this space weather theory is “soon to be revised”, the story says. Here’s why: Though the speeds of typical CMEs are impressive, and have posed a deep mystery for decades, they do not come close to the speed of the January 20 ejection. Light from the Sun (or from a solar flare) reaches Earth in 8 minutes. An ejection reaching Earth in 30 minutes must be rapidly accelerated to velocities more than a quarter of the speed of light. From the traditional viewpoint, this is unthinkable. And yet it happened.


X-rays from the Sun are not generated thermally, electromagnetic particles are being accelerated through the Sun's own ether field to create x-rays. The cause of the solar x-rays is electrical, not thermal.

Koronium

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2057945#msg2057945

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2058259#msg2058259

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2064256#msg2064256



Dr. Stuart D. Bale, UC Berkeley

« Last Edit: October 09, 2019, 12:00:41 PM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #650 on: October 12, 2019, 12:58:28 AM »
ROMAN-PARTHIAN WARS REVISITED

Official chronology of history:

https://brewminate.com/parthia-romes-ablest-competitor/

However, Garri Kasparov investigated the entire storyline of these events and found out that they could never have taken place at all.

http://www.revisedhistory.org/Book%20of%20Civilization.pdf

Cavalry. If we believe «antic» sources, the Roman cavalry was not a serious force. One of the reasons was that there was no harness! Probably, there were already reins, but there were no stirrups. Stirrups appeared only in the 8th century according to the traditional dating of official history. Allegedly stirrups came from China. And in the 8th century AD together with stirrups chivalry came. It all coincides — stirrups and immediately chivalry. And it is right and understandable. But ancient Romans did not pay attention to harness at all. But the most dangerous battles in history of Rome were with oriental people, skillful horse riders. With mythical Parthians who disappeared all of a sudden. By the way, there was the Parthian kingdom and then ... disappeared. And those oriental people had two important advantages, i.e. cavalry archers that inflicted heavy casualties on the Romans. Arrows of heavy long bows smashed the infantry, knocked it down in rows. But Rome did not make any attempts to improve shooting arms. Ancient Rome did not have arbalests either. Although, the Romans, masters of ballistics, could have easily invented powerful enough shooting devices which could be operated by one person, like arbalests and long bows. Nevertheless, it did not happen, and in reality the quality of military actions of the Roman army did not change. There is one more discrepancy. Numerous heroes of ancient Greek myths were splendid archers. Even powerful Hercules had to use arrows many times. The bow of Odysseus possessing incredible killing power slew unlucky bridegrooms of Penelope. And so many giants were killed by brilliant Apollo with his well-aimed bow!

There are two well-known occasions of crushing defeats of Roman legions. The first is the fall of the Crassus army at Carrhae in 53 BC The second one is Adrianople, the defeat of the army of Emperor Valens in 378 AD The time period between the first and the second is allegedly 400 years! But both defeats are practically identical. In both cases heavy cavalry and archers just smash the Romans. The legions cannot maintain battle formation, the Roman cavalry gets stuck somewhere. The foes break up the formation and start to pursue the shocked crowd of warriors. The descriptions of both battles are almost alike. By the way, they took place in Asia Minor close to each other. In accordance with the proposed new chronology, it is more likely that the two mirages just lie on each other. In reality, a western army was once in ancient time completely defeated because it could not withstand well-aimed arrows and heavy cavalry cutting the formation apart. Quite probably, it was one of the battles of a medieval Trojan war.

The preface is written by Kasparov and is a fantastic analysis of "ancient" history: biological and anthropological factors, psychophysical factors, the primitivism of musical instruments, the inability to improve arms and military tactics, absence of geographical maps, absence of banking system and goods credit, absence of great scholars since the 1st century BC, absence of counting systems, absence of chemical investigations, absence of good medicine, paucity of life conditions and devices (no forks, knives, functional kitchenware).

http://www.revisedhistory.org/view-garry-kasparov.htm

Mathematics of the Past

But let us return to mathematics and to ancient Rome. The Roman numeral system discouraged serious calculations. How could the ancient Romans build elaborate structures such as temples, bridges, and aqueducts without precise and elaborate calculations? The most important deficiency of Roman numerals is that they are completely unsuitable even for performing a simple operation like addition, not to mention multiplication, which presents substantial difficulties. In early European universities, algorithms for multiplication and division using Roman numerals were doctoral research topics. It is absolutely impossible to use clumsy Roman numbers in multi-stage calculations. The Roman system had no numeral "zero." Even the simplest decimal operations with numbers cannot be expressed in Roman numerals.

Despite all these deficiencies, Roman numerals supposedly remained the predominant representation of numbers in European culture until the 14th century. How did the ancient Romans succeed in their calculations and complicated astronomical computations? It is believed that in the 3rd century, the Greek mathematician Diophantus was able to find positive and rational solutions to the following system of equations, called Diophantic today.

According to historians, at the time of Diophantus, only one symbol was used for an unknown, a symbol for "plus" did not exist, neither was there a symbol for "zero." How could Diophantic equations be solved using Greek letters or Roman numerals? Can these solutions be reproduced? Are we dealing here with another secret of ancient history that we are not supposed to question?

It is also interesting to look at the invention of the logarithm. The logarithm of a number x (to the base 10) expresses simply the number of digits in the decimal representation of x, so it is clearly connected to the idea of the positional numbering system. Obviously, Roman numerals could not have led to the invention of logarithms.

« Last Edit: October 12, 2019, 01:01:32 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #651 on: October 19, 2019, 01:53:10 AM »
GENERALIZED SAGNAC EFFECT X: OPERA-CERN NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT



https://arxiv.org/pdf/1109.4897.pdf

"The Earth’s revolution around the Sun and the movement of the solar system in the Milky Way induce a negligible effect, as well as the influence of the gravitational fields of Moon, Sun and Milky Way, and the Earth’s frame-dragging."

However, the ORBITAL SAGNAC effect and the GALACTIC SAGNAC effect were never even addressed, much less calculated, by the scientists who were part of the OPERA neutrino experiment.

http://operaweb.lngs.infn.it/Opera/publicnotes/note136.pdf

The gravitational fields consequences of the moon, sun and the galaxy were calculated, and not the ORBITAL or the GALACTIC SAGNAC effects.

The CORIOLIS EFFECT formula was computed and was found to be identical to the formula published earlier by N. Ashby and by C.C. Su:

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.615.3798&rep=rep1&type=pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20050515161001/http://qem.ee.nthu.edu.tw/f1a.pdf

Dr. Stephan Gift tried to point out to the physicists at CERN and Gran Sasso Laboratory that the orbital Sagnac had never been computed at all:

(1) Why isn’t the effect of the orbital movement of the Earth also included?

So they tried to quiet him down:

Continuing to quote from page 16 (of 1109.4897v2), “The Earth’s revolution around the Sun and the movement of the solar system in the Milky Way induce a negligible effect, as well as the influence of the gravitational fields of Moon, Sun and Milky Way, and the Earth’s frame-dragging [39].”

But, as we have seen, those calculations have nothing to do with the orbital Sagnac effect, which is much larger than the rotational Sagnac effect (which was not recorded at all by the neutrino experiment).

Dr. Gift responded:

Moreover, the authors have given no basis for the claim in the paper that the Earth’s revolution around the Sun and the movement of the solar system in the Milky Way induce a negligible effect, particularly as the Earth’s rotational speed at the relevant latitude is about 330m/s while its orbital speed is 30km/s.


However, the biggest surprise came from the University of Cambridge.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1110.0392.pdf

The influence of Earth rotation in neutrino speed measurements between CERN and the OPERA detector

Markus G. Kuhn
Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge

For the first time ever, it was acknowledged that the SAGNAC EFFECT measured for the neutrino experiment is actually the CORIOLIS EFFECT.

As the authors did not indicate whether and how they took into account the Coriolis or Sagnac effect that Earth’s rotation has on the (southeastwards traveling) neutrinos, this brief note quantifies this effect.

And the resulting Coriolis effect (in optics also known as Sagnac effect) should be taken into account.

It is beyond belief that physicists who find themselves at the highest possible level in the mainstream scientific community can confuse the SAGNAC EFFECT with the CORIOLIS EFFECT.

The Coriolis effect is just a physical effect, a slight lateral deflection of the light beams. It is proportional to the area of the interferometer.

The Sagnac effect, by contrast, is an electromagnetic effect, it modifies the velocities of the light beams, and is much larger than the Coriolis effect, since it is proportional to the radius of rotation.

But Dr. Kuhn does acknowledge that the effect measured upon the neutrion beam is actually the CORIOLIS EFFECT.


Again, the Coriolis effect formula (angular velocity x area) was computed for the OPERA neutrino experiment:

http://alpha.sinp.msu.ru/~panov/Lib/Papers/OPERA/1109.6160v2.pdf


Let me now PROVE that, for an interferometer whose center of rotation does not coincide with its geometrical center, one will record BOTH the Sagnac and the Coriolis effects.

LISA Space Antenna



The LISA interferometer rotates both around its own axis and around the Sun as well, at the same time.

That is, the interferometer will be subjected to BOTH the rotational Sagnac (equivalent to the Coriolis effect) and the orbital Sagnac effects.

If the interferometer would not be rotating around its axis, but only would be orbiting the Sun, it will be subjected to BOTH the Coriolis effect of rotation and the orbital Sagnac effect.

For an interferometer which has regular geometry (square, rectangle, equilateral triangle) the Coriolis effect and the Sagnac effect coincide and are equal; for the first case, the interferometer can be stationary (not rotating around its own axis) while for the second case, the interferometer must be rotating.

Given the huge cost of the entire project, the best experts in the field (CalTech, ESA) were called upon to provide the necessary theoretical calculations for the total phase shift of the interferometer. To everyone's surprise, and for the first time since Sagnac and Michelson and Gale, it was found that the ORBITAL SAGNAC EFFECT is much greater than the CORIOLIS EFFECT.

The factor of proportionality is R/L (R = radius of rotation, L = length of the side of the interferometer).



Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis: orbiting case
K Rajesh Nayak and J-Y Vinet

https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/946106/1027345/TDI_FOR_.PDF/2bb32fba-1b8a-438d-9e95-bc40c32debbe

This is an IOP article, published by the prestigious journal Classic and Quantum Gravity:

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0264-9381/22/10/040/meta

In this work, we estimate the effects due to the Sagnac phase by taking the realistic model for LISA orbital motion.

This work is organized as follows: in section 2, we make an estimate of Sagnac phase
for individual laser beams of LISA by taking realistic orbital motion. Here we show that, in general, the residual laser noise because of Sagnac phase is much larger than earlier estimates.

For the LISA geometry, R⊙/L is of the order 30 and the orbital contribution to the Sagnac phase is larger by this factor.

The computations carried out by Dr. R.K. Nayak (over ten papers published on the subject) and Dr. J.Y. Vinet (Member of the LISA International Science Team), and published by prestigious scientific journals and by ESA, show that the orbital Sagnac is 30 times greater than the rotational Sagnac for LISA.


The same phenomenon is at work for the MGX and RLGs.

One has an interferometer which is rotating on the surface of a sphere: it will be subjected to both the Coriolis effect and to the Sagnac effect.


According to Stokes' rule an integration of angular velocity Ω over an area A is substituted by an integration of tangential component of translational velocity v along the closed line of length L limiting the given area:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2023979#msg2023979

"Sagnac effect is a change in propagation time for light going in a closed path. The time delay Δt appears when a test equipment is rotated with an angular velocity Ώ. Sagnac effect is frequently used in rate gyros in navigational systems. Fiber optics is used with light-speed c inside the fiber in a circular light path. The difference in propagation time Δt for two opposite directions of light is described as

Δt = 4AΩ/c2

Where A is enclosed area. Δt is derived based on an integration of Ω over A.

According to Stokes' rule can an integration of angular velocity Ω over an area A be substituted by an integration of tangential component of translational velocity v along the closed line of length L limiting the given area. This interpretation gives

Δt = 4vL/c2

producing the same value as the earlier expression. This can also be demonstrated by geometrical relations. These two integrations have different physical implications. We must therefore decide which one is correct from a physical aspect. Mathematics can not tell us that. So the decision is whether the effect is caused by a rotating area or by a translating line. Since Sagnac effect is an effect in light that is enclosed inside an optical fiber we can conclude that Sagnac effect is distributed along a line and not over an area. No light and no rotation exists in the enclosed area. Sagnac detected therefore an effect of translation although he had to rotate the equipment to produce the effect inside the fiber.

We conclude that the later expression

Δt = 4vL/c2

is the correct interpretation."


Here is the CORIOLIS EFFECT formula:

https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/087/05/0071

Spinning Earth and its Coriolis effect on the circuital light beams

The final formula is this:

dt = 4ωA/c2


The SAGNAC EFFECT, by contrast, does not feature an AREA at all.





Here is the CORIOLIS FORMULA for the MGX:

4AωsinΦ/c2

Φ = (Φ1 + Φ2)/2


Here is the SAGNAC FORMULA for the MGX:

2(V1L1 + V2L2)/c2

V1 = V0cosΦ1
V2 = V0cosΦ2
L1 = L0cosΦ1
L2 = L0cosΦ2

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2117351#msg2117351


Let now V0 = V and L0 = L.
Let ε = sinΦ and ε1 = (cos2Φ1 + cos2Φ2)

Then, we obtain:

CORIOLIS EFFECT FORMULA

4Aωε/c2


SAGNAC EFFECT FORMULA

2VLε1/c2

Exactly the form required by the application of Stokes' theorem to light interferometers.


The effect of ether on beam neutrinos experiments:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2061804#msg2061804


Hasselbach and Nicklaus and Werner measured the CORIOLIS EFFECT of the ether drift upon the electrons/neutrons.

What S.A. Werner measured in 1979 is the CORIOLIS EFFECT upon the neutron phase:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.00259.pdf

Once the area of the interferometer is mentioned, one obtains the CORIOLIS EFFECT.



« Last Edit: October 19, 2019, 02:05:48 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #652 on: November 28, 2019, 11:38:04 AM »
ACTIVE AND INERTIAL GRAVITATIONAL MASSES




https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0701012.pdf

Dr. H.G. Ellis
Department of Mathematics,
University Colorado Boulder



http://web.archive.org/web/20090902090420/http://www.sjcrothers.plasmaresources.com/Levi-Civita.pdf

A very nice paper by T. Levi-Civita in 1917, one of the inventors of Tensor Calculus, showing that Einstein's pseudo-tensor is nonsense because it leads to the requirement for a first-order, intrinsic, differential invariant, which, as is well known to the pure mathematicians, does not exist! This too has been ignored by the relativists.


The Repulsive Gravitation and Errors of Einstein

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6057/f99c6fcb7ffdb7584749aeb345b97a7e8a79.pdf



Energy-Momentum of the Gravitational Field: Crucial Point for Gravitation Physics and Cosmology

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0809/0809.2323.pdf

"Here it is shown that existence of well-defined positive energy-momentum of the gravity field leads to radical changes in gravity physics and cosmology, including such new possibilities as two-component nature of gravity – attraction (spin 2) and repulsion (spin 0).

The "pseudo-tensor" character of the gravity field in GR has been discussed from time to time for a century, causing surprises for each new generation of physicists.

The strategy and basic principles of the field gravity theory were discussed by Feynman, who emphasized that "geometrical interpretation is not really necessary or essential for physics" (Feynman, Morinigo & Wagner 1995, p. 113). He pointed to the central role of the energy of the gravity field for a reasonable theory of gravitational interaction.

For him gravitons were particles carrying the energy-momentum of the field: "the situation is exactly analogous to electrodynamics - and in the quantum interpretation, every radiated graviton carries away an amount of energy.

In the Poincare-Feynman field approach, the gravity force between Newton's apple and the Earth is caused by the exchange of gravitons.

The most intriguing consequence of the field gravity theory is that the scalar part (spin 0) corresponds to a repulsive force, while the pure tensor part (spin 2) corresponds to attraction."


The Energy-Momentum Tensor For The Gravitational Field

http://cds.cern.ch/record/392913/files/9907027.pdf


Recent cosmological observations have raised the possibility that under certain circumstances gravity might actually contain an effective repulsive component, to thus invite consideration of the degree to which, and of the specific set of conditions under which, gravity actually need be strictly attractive in the first place. In fact, familiar as attractive gravity is, its actual attractiveness stems from the a priori assumption that Newton’s constant G be chosen (purely by hand) to actually be positive. Then with this positive G being treated as a fundamental input parameter by both Newtonian gravity and its relativistic Einstein gravity generalization (and even by their quantum-mechanical string theory generalization as well for that matter), the universal attractive nature of gravity is then posited on all distance scales and for all possible gravitational field strengths. As such, this actually constitutes a quite severe extrapolation of observationally established gravitational information from the kinematic solar system distance scale weak gravity regime where it was expressly obtained in the first place. And indeed, when the standard Newton-Einstein gravitational theory is actually extended beyond its solar system origins, nonetheless, disturbingly many difficulties are also encountered, in essentially every single such type of extrapolation that is in in fact made.

Dr. Philip D. Mannheim
Department of Physics, University of Connecticut


Exact formula for the Biefeld-Brown effect:




Zero point energy (ether waves) and the mass of the graviton.

Effect of the Vacuum Energy Density on Graviton Propagation

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0409/0409098.pdf


Dr. Erik Verlinde:

General Relativity remains just a description of the force we call gravity. It leaves unanswered the key question of exactly how matter affects space and time.


"The graviton particle is chosen with the right mathematical characteristic to quantize gravity in accordance with quantum field theory and general relativity. These attempts however, fail to account for the origin of space-time curvature. Specifically, how does a graviton produce curvature when propagating from one mass to another? Does the graviton move in an already existing 4D space-time curvature? If it does, how is the space-time produced by the graviton? If not, how is 4D space-time curvature produced? In other words, if the 4D space-time curvature is not caused by the graviton exchanges, then what is the cause?"

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/9902/9902073.pdf


"Newton’s law of action and reaction is applicable to the bodies A and B only under the condition that gravity acts at a distance instantaneously, that is, at infinite propagation speed. But the general theory of relativity Einstein was expounding is a field theory in which gravitational effects propagate at finite speed."

Faster than light speed of gravity:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1943468#msg1943468



https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00696109

Quantum field theory cannot provide faster-than-light communication

Phillippe H. Eberhard, Ronald R. Ross
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5604n7md

« Last Edit: November 28, 2019, 11:49:08 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #653 on: December 06, 2019, 05:43:58 AM »
GIZEH PYRAMID: WHEN WAS IT ACTUALLY BUILT? II




https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1625605#msg1625605 (part I)

"The Great Pyramid took 20 years to build, with an estimated 12 blocks moved into place each hour for 24 hours a day on average."

The Gizeh pyramid was not built using ramps:

https://www.cheops-pyramide.ch/khufu-pyramid/pyramid-theories.html

Ropes/pulleys could not have been used to transport the 40 ton stress-relieving, granite slabs above the roof of the King’s Chamber. To transport a 60 ton block of stone, even using wheels, requires a sophisticated braking system.

Moreover the basic problem remains: how were those blocks of stone transported to the building site in the first place?

The Gizeh pyramid was not built using hydraulic methods:

https://arkysite.wordpress.com/2012/08/09/how-the-pyramids-were-really-built-really/

By comparison, here is the Penasquito mine tailing dam (one side will measure 4 km):



"To give you an idea of the enormous size of Penasquito’s tailings dam, the red circle shows just how small the large Komatsu 930E haul truck is next to the dam. The Komatsu 930E haul truck, which Penasquito has 85 currently in its fleet, is 24 feet tall and can move 320 tons of ore, rock or sand in a single trip."

The ultimate height of the tailings dam will reach 142 meters: the total height of the Gizeh pyramid is 148.6 meters (frustum + apex).


Given these facts, engineers and physicists have sought to explain the Gizeh pyramid by other means: the use of concrete.

https://www.geopolymer.org/archaeology/pyramids/are-pyramids-made-out-of-concrete-1/

The author of the theory claims that even the Baalbek huge granite blocks, and the monuments at Tiahuanaco, were built using concrete.

Now, it is known for sure that the diorite vases/amphoras were produced using the potter's wheel (geopolymer cement).

http://chronologia.org/en/how_it_was/04_14.html

However, the geopolymer concrete technique would have still required the grinding down of the primary rocks into a dust-like powder. Then, that powder had to be transported to the construction site. Faced with these problems, the physicists were forced to come up with an explanation: sonic drilling was used to carve and grind down the stones.

But then, if sonic/ultrasonic carving and drilling was actually used, acoustic levitation could have been utilized to transport the enormous blocks of stone.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2179616#msg2179616

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1569140#msg1569140


Then, there is the matter of the arctangent extended infinite series used at Gizeh:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1834389#msg1834389

The use of advanced calculus means that the Gizeh pyramid was built exactly at the same time as the knowledge of mathematical analysis was being introduced in the 17th century:

Origin of Calculus: How Mathematical Analysis Was Imported to India, Italy, France and England

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1574605#msg1574605

The Gizeh pyramid and the zeros of the Riemann zeta function:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2006301#msg2006301

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2006274#msg2006274

« Last Edit: January 07, 2020, 02:23:54 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #654 on: December 09, 2019, 03:44:55 AM »
ULTIMATE PROOF: METER UNIT OF LENGTH AND TAYLOR/EULER ARCTANGENT SERIES AT GIZEH

The angle that each face of the Pyramid makes with the base is exactly 51.8554°.

The most precise ever measuremets of the Giza pyramid were taken by D. Davidson (beyond Piazzi or Petrie):

http://www.magia-metachemica.net/uploads/1/0/6/2/10624795/davidson_the_great_pyramid_its_divine_message.pdf

Page 75

51° 51' 14.3"
= 51° + 51'/60 + 14.3"/3600
= 51.85397°

90° - 51.8554° = 38.1446°

All of the inner and outer measurements of the Gizeh pyramid were determined using three circles each having a radius of 60 sacred cubits = 38.18 meters (one sacred cubit = 0.636363 meters).



"Our own calculations show that the radius adopted for the three circles envisioned by us was equal to 60 such Sacred Cubits; the number 60 being, not accidentally, the base number of the Sumerian sexagesimal mathematical system. This measure of 60 Sacred Cubits is dominant in the lengths and heights of the pyramid's inner structure as well as in the dimensions of its base."

The value of 38.18 can only be inferred if, and only if, the 60 sacred cubits are expressed in meters.

The architects of the Gizeh pyramid had at their disposal the METER, as an UNIT OF BASIC MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH. In the official chronology of history, the meter was adopted in 1799 AD in France.


Virtually all of the authors who do study the dimensions of the Gizeh pyramid use the ARCTANGENT FUNCTION to calculate the various angles, especially those of the slope of the pyramid's outer casing. Yet, they do not understand that the planners of the pyramid had to do the same thing in order to calculate the very precise values of these angles.

51.85/38.1 = 1.361

5.23 (masonry base) + 136.1 (pyramid frustum w/o the masonry base) + 7.28 (apex) = 148.61

Length of the sides of the right triangle: 148.61 meters, 116.71204 meters, 188.961987 meters.

Again, we can obtain the value of 136.1 meters, if, and only if, we substract from the total height of the frustum of the pyramid, the elevation of the masonry base which is 5.23 meters. The height of the masonry base was obtained, for the first time, in 1985 with the help of the diagram which features the three circles.

The elevation of the king's chamber is 43.37 meters.

http://www.magia-metachemica.net/uploads/1/0/6/2/10624795/davidson_the_great_pyramid_its_divine_message.pdf (pages 151 - 158)

43.37 - 38.14 = 5.23

The width of the queen's chamber also measures 5.23 meters.


The architects of the Gizeh pyramid had to use the extended arctangent series to find the precise values of the angles, but in addition they also knew the value of the most important constant of the eta zeta function (alternating series zeta function): 2π/ln2.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/math/0209393.pdf

https://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.2840.pdf


90 - 38.1446 = 51.8554

51.85 x ln2/2π = 2 x 2.86


286.1 is the displacement factor of the Gizeh pyramid.

136.12° radians x 3.81553 = 2π/ln2

That is, 2π/ln2 is the arclength corresponding to the 136.12° expressed in radians multiplied by 6 sacred cubits.


Thus the builders of the pyramid also knew the value of π and made use of the radian measure and of the natural logarithm.

"The concept of radian measure, as opposed to the degree of an angle, is normally credited to Roger Cotes in 1714. He had the radian in everything but name, and he recognized its naturalness as a unit of angular measure

The first mention of the natural logarithm was by Nicholas Mercator in his work Logarithmotechnia published in 1668, although the mathematics teacher John Speidell had already in 1619 compiled a table on the natural logarithm."


In order to find the values of the two angles, 51.8554° and 38.1446°, the architects had to solve these equations:

TAN X = 1.27330478216 = 0.636652 x 2

SIN X = 0.617648


To find the final value of 51.8554 degrees, the architects MUST have used the extended arctangent series to achieve the final result.

Just a "very good approximation" won't do it.

One needs the correct value to the fifth decimal, something that can be achieved ONLY by using advanced calculus.

There is no way that Euler's extended arctangent series would have been used 4,500 years ago by the civilization which built the Gizeh pyramid: the entire development of the accepted chronology of history would be defied on a monumental scale.

The architects of the pyramid did use the extended arctangent series exactly in the 17th century, when they also infused the knowledge about calculus into mainstream science in Kerala, France, Italy, and England.

The derivation of the extended arctangent series, a result from advanced calculus:

http://eulerarchive.maa.org/hedi/HEDI-2009-02.pdf
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1835310/new-series-formula-for-arctanx-lnx



51.8554° = 0.907045 radians

1/1.27330478216 = 0.78535

Substituting the value of 0.78535 in the Maclaurin arctan series and solving the reciprocal arctan equation, up to the O(x11) term we get:

0.905045

This corresponds to a 51.983° value.

Therefore, the builders of the Pyramid must have had at their disposal the notion of the derivative (either the Newton-Leibniz or the Madhava definitions) in order to obtain the arctan Maclaurin series, not to mention the reciprocal arctan equation; even in that case, they had to be able to compute powers of certain numbers, going perhaps all the way to the O(x17) term (in the Maclaurin series) or even beyond, to obtain a meaningful accuracy.

And the value of TAN 51.8554° equals exactly two sacred cubits expressed as a dimensionless number (1.27330478216 = 0.636652 x 2).


The total height of the apex is 286.1 sacred inches = 7.28 meters.

148.61 - 7.28 = 141.33 meters.

The value of the first zero of Riemann's zeta function is 14.134725.

The GIZEH PYRAMID is a large scale representation of the SMALLEST PARTICLE OF QUANTUM PHYSICS (even smaller than a boson).

https://web.archive.org/web/20170605173236/http://reocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/3324/nefersschooloflearning.htm

https://web.archive.org/web/20170605171457/http://reocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/3324/nefershouse.htm

https://web.archive.org/web/20120802231648/http://reocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/3324/pan3.gif

There are several values to be used for the sacred cubit depending on the color of the light spectrum: starting from 0.62832 all the way to 0.64 – the most important value is of course 0.636363..., the sacred cubit.

The authors of the work even express each and every value of the Gizeh pyramid using a very special type of circle:

https://web.archive.org/web/20120802231648/http://reocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/3324/pan5.gif


Reference #1

http://davidpratt.info/pyramid.htm

For example, the angle of slope of the Pyramid’s outer casing was 51.85 degrees.


Reference #2

The Pyramid Age, E.J. Sweeney

Chapter 1, page 4

This ratio provides a slope of 51.85 degrees (calculated).


Reference #3

http://stochasticprojectmanagement.com/?p=105

ratio of height to width: 1.571 (one half of pi)  slope: 51.85 degrees


Reference #4

https://web.archive.org/web/20160401055724/http://www.numberscience.me.uk/Giza.html

The slant angle of the face of the pyramid approximates to 51.85 degrees.

« Last Edit: December 27, 2019, 11:27:59 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #655 on: December 27, 2019, 03:05:30 AM »
GIZEH PYRAMID: WHEN WAS IT ACTUALLY BUILT? III

When tourists enter the Grand Gallery and the so-called King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid for the first time, most are surprised to encounter high humidity. In 1974, a joint research project carried out by Stanford Research Institute (SRI International), of Stanford (California) and Ain Shams University, in Cairo, indicated that whereas the bedrock of Giza is dry, the pyramid blocks are full of moisture.

(Davidovits & Morris, The Pyramids: An Enigma Solved, p. 15).

"Nobel Prize winning "scientist" Dr. Luis Alvarez was given the task of x-raying the pyramids at Giza to find hidden chambers. Using naturally occurring cosmic rays, his scheme was to place spark chambers, standard equipment in the high-energy particle physics of this time, beneath the second pyramid of Chephren in a known chamber. By measuring the counting rate of the cosmic rays in different directions the detector would reveal the existence of any void in the overlaying rock structure.

Alvarez and his team were about to use space age technology to look inside the oldest building in the world.

Dr. Luis Alvarez recommended using cosmic rays to x-ray all the pyramids in the Giza Plateau.

Archaeologist and author Ahmed Fakhry was his liaison in Egypt.

Their work continued until the Six-Day War in June 1967."



Preparing to X-ray the pyramids with Egyptologist Ahmed Fakhry and team leader Jerry Anderson, Berkeley, 1966.

"The results were ASTONISHING. The cosmic rays could not penetrate the water saturated limestone blocks of the pyramids."



"The x-ray team in front of the Great Pyramid. Alvarez is on the left."


In 1974, a massive 1 million dollar project was launched by the National Science Foundation in the U.S. to locate hidden chambers in the Giza pyramids.



(setting up the x-ray equipment in the Great Pyramid)

"In 1974, apparently unaware of the pyramid x-raying of Alvarez, the National Science Foundation launched another attempt to x-ray the pyramids.

This time the results were published.

The limestone rocks were too saturated with water to allow penetration by cosmic rays."



(oscilloscope setup in Belzoni's Chamber)

The search had to be abandoned because the electro-magnetic sounder equipment could not penetrate the limestone rocks due to their high water content.



(Cheops limestone water content chart)

"Limestone from all over Egypt was tested against Cheops limestone for water content.

The results were that Great Pyramid limestone is UNIQUE because it is saturated with MOISTURE and not found anywhere else in the world.

It is antediluvian limestone."

A Joint Egyptian-American research team conducted electromagnetic sounder experiments during autumn 1974 with the primary objective of locating archaeologically significant chambers in the Giza area. Radio frequency losses in the limestone rock of the area, ranging from 6 dB/m at 10 MHz to 25 dB/m at 150 MHz, appear to preclude much practical application of radio-frequency sounding in the vicinity of Giza. The high losses are contrary to expectations based on samples analyzed before the Giza experiments, but are consistent with later laboratory analyses made at the high temperature and high humidity characteristic of the Giza environment.

(Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza. p. iii).

http://www.ldolphin.org/egypt/egypt1/index.html

Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza

Stanford University

During its autumn 1974 electromagnetic sounder experiments the joint Egyptian-American research team established that high attenuation due to high water content in the limestone of the Giza area precluded many practical applications of radio-frequency sounding for archaeological purposes in that area.

The 10-MHz transmitter and antenna were carried 100 m up the south face of Cheops' pyramid, and placed by the air shaft from the King's chamber:


Even when the receiving antenna in the portable receiver was placed next to the air shaft on the south wall of the King's chamber, no sounder signals could be heard through the intervening 50 m of rock.


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1936055#msg1936055 (Gizeh pyramid challenge for Velikovsky and heliocentrism)


1643 AD (first cosmic cataclysm; Tiamat is split into two disks: Rahu and Ketu (Black Sun and Shadow Moon, by Venus and Mercury (Typhon) the former satellites of Jupiter)

1643 + 63.6 = 1706

1706 AD (great Flood occurred, caused by Typhon/Nibiru/Mercury)

1706 + 63.6 = 1769

1769 AD (end of Venus transit, the island of California becomes part of the American continent, Tartaria/Tartary could no longer defend its former territories in North and South America since Siberia was totally covered by ice)

« Last Edit: December 27, 2019, 11:05:09 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #656 on: December 28, 2019, 01:27:04 AM »
GIZEH PYRAMID: WHEN WAS IT ACTUALLY BUILT? IV



“We can clearly see the pristine condition and the details of the perforations of the exoskeleton, this means that the sea creature must have been petrified in recent times.” -Sherif El Morsy

https://www.gigalresearch.com/uk/Menkara-petrified-shallow-marine-creature.php

“During one of the documentations of the ancient coastline, I almost tripped with a block of the second level of a temple,” said Mr. Morsy in an article published on the website Gigal Research. “To my surprise, the bump on the top surface of the block that almost tripped me was in fact a  exoskeleton of a fossil of what appears to be a echinoid (sea urchin) which are marine creatures that live in relatively shallow waters.”

Archaeologist Sherif El Morsy, who has worked extensively on the Giza plateau for over two decades, and his colleague Antoine Gigal, were the ones who made the discovery of this controversial fossil, which backs up studies and theories that the Pyramids of Giza and the mighty Sphinx were once submerged under the sea.

According to El Morsy, the flooding, was quite significant, peaking at about 75 meters above current sea level and creating a coastline spanning to the Khafra enclosure near the Sphinx at the temple of Menkare.

A convincing clue proving that the Giza plateau was once covered by the sea is being studied, along with other evidence of erosion due to saturation by deep water of the surface of the plateau. An echinoid (a type of sea urchin or shallow marine creature) petrified in “recent times” has been found embedded upright in the upper surface of a block adjoining the Menkaura pyramid and within the ancient intertidal range.


"Since the end of the third millennium B.C. the climate of Egypt has been generally similar to that of the present day. Between 2350 B.C. and A.D. 700 the average temperature seems to have been, if anything, a trifle above and the average rainfall a little below the modern levels, but with at least two 'quite moist' spells, one in late Ramesside times [circa 1200-1100 B.C.] and one about 850 B.C."

"The nature and especially degree of weathering seen in the Sphinx enclosure and on the body of the Sphinx itself, is incompatible with sporadic flash floods since dynastic times. Even if occasional heavy rains occur on the Giza Plateau, the fact remains that currently on average only about an inch of rain each year occurs in the region (25 to 29 mm annually)."

"The Giza Plateau has had a mean annual rainfall of about one inch (2.5 cm) per year since Old Kingdom times."


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1644103#msg1644103 (late upthrust of the Himalaya range in the age of historical man)


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #657 on: December 28, 2019, 05:39:21 AM »
ORBITAL STABILITY OF THE HELIOCENTRICAL SOLAR SYSTEM II

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1935048#msg1935048 (part I)



Madison boulder near Conway, New Hampshire, measures 90 by 40 by  38 feet, and weighs 10,000 tons. Unlike the bedrock beneath, it is composed of granite.

"In many places of the world, and especially in the north, large  boulders are found in a position which proves that a great force must  have lifted them up and carried them long distances before depositing them where they are found today. They are of an entirely different mineral composition than the local rocks, but are akin to formations many miles away. Thus, occasionally an erratic boulder of granite perches on top of a high ridge of dolerite, whereas the nearest outcrops of granite lie far away. These  erratic boulders may weigh as much as ten thousand tons, about as  much as one hundred thirty thousand people."

"In Britain and Germany are found many such boulders brought across the sea from Norway. Boulders from Finland have been swept over Poland, the site of Moscow, and as far as the River Don.  Often they are frighteningly piled up.

Huge blocks from Canada and Labrador lie strewn over North America.  Some are plain GIGANTIC.

An erratic boulder in Warren County, Ohio, covers ¾ acre and weighs 13,500 tons (the load of a large cargo ship). And near Malmö, southern Sweden, is a mass of chalk stone 1,000 feet wide, up to 200 feet thick and THREE MILES LONG!"

https://ancientpatriarchs.files.wordpress.com/2019/06/sweden-malmo-limestone-chalk.jpg?w=474&h=328

Glaciers carry stones downhill, not uphill.

Also, erratic bounders are found in places where continental ice could hardly have deposited them… on the Azores, islands separated from the ice cover by a wide expanse of ocean.

Azores islands erratic boulders:

https://books.google.ro/books?id=iGrpHKIdi8IC&pg=PA305&lpg=PA305&dq=azores+island+erratic+boulder&source=bl&ots=ZpgSfZthMP&sig=ACfU3U3lFhrSN10jOATkoGZVN0zxYt8Lnw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjWhZGs8tXmAhUjmYsKHU64BO0Q6AEwCXoECAkQAg#v=onepage&q=azores%20island%20erratic%20boulder&f=false

"In Europe, huge rocks (one of them 10,000 cubic feet) were carried from the Alps, across a space now occupied by Lake Geneva, and hurled 2,000 feet up on to the Jura Mountains, where they still sit!"


To explain these facts, the scholars of the first half of the nineteenth  century assumed that enormous tides had swept over the continents  and carried with them masses of stone. The transfer of the rocks was  explained by the tides, but what could have caused those billows to  rise high over the continents?

“It was conceived that somehow and somewhere in the far north  a series of gigantic waves was mysteriously propagated. These waves  were supposed to have precipitated themselves upon the land, and  then swept madly on over mountain and valley alike, carrying along  with them a mighty burden of rocks and stones and rubbish. Such deluges were styled ‘waves of translation’; and the till was believed  to represent the materials which they hurried along with them in  their wild course across the country.”  The stones and boulders on  the hilltops and the mounds of sand and gravel in the lowlands were  explained by this theory.


In the heliocentrical setting these enormous tides could have been caused only by a close encounter with another planet.

"The ocean tides are produced by the action of the sun and to a  larger extent by that of the moon. A body larger than the moon or  one nearer to the earth would act with greater effect. A comet with a head as large as the earth, passing sufficiently close, would raise the waters of the oceans hundreds of meters high."

J. Lalande, Abrege d’astronomie (1795), p. 340, who computed that a  comet with a head as large as the earth, at a distance of 13,290 lieues, or about  four diameters of the earth, would raise ocean tides 2,000 toises or about four  kilometers high.

"The slowing down or stasis  of the earth in its rotation would cause a tidal recession of water  toward the poles, but the celestial body near by would disturb this poleward recession, drawing the water toward itself. "

"The fact that accumulations of stones were transferred from the  equator toward the higher latitudes, an enigmatic problem in the ice  theory, can be explained by the poleward recession of the equatorial  waters at the moment the velocity of rotation of the earth was reduced or its poles were shifted. In the Northern Hemisphere, in India, the moraines were carried from the equator not only toward higher  latitudes, but also toward the Himalaya Mountains, and in the Southern Hemisphere from the equatorial regions of Africa toward the higher latitudes, across the prairies and deserts and forests of the black continent."


A close encounter/collision with another planet, during historical times, nullifies and defies the orbital equations of motion ascribed to the celestial bodies in general (which are based on Newtonian mechanics), and the calculations performed by J. Laskar in particular.

It also illustrates the correctness of the calculations carried out by Dr. Robert Bass and by Dr. W.M. Smart (see part one of this series).


Venus' Argon-36 and Argon-40 age:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1938506#msg1938506

Venus' carbon dioxide age:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1938793#msg1938793

Venus' neon krypton age:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1938826#msg1938826

Venus and Earth spin orbit resonance:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1939336#msg1939336

« Last Edit: December 28, 2019, 05:55:40 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #658 on: December 30, 2019, 06:52:26 AM »
ORBITAL STABILITY OF THE HELIOCENTRICAL SOLAR SYSTEM III

The Kvarnby chalk quarry from Sweden is three miles long.

The largest ever concealed megablock/bedrock raft is to be found in Saskatchewan, with dimensions of 30 km x 38 km (volume 60 cubic km, area 1000 square km, maximum thickness 100 m).

Glaciotectonic Landforms and Structures (ch. 6, Megablocks and Rafts)
By J. S. Aber, David G. Croot, Mark M. Fenton



This map shows the Esterhazy megablock, composed of the Odanah Member of the Pierre Shale, in gray.

"The large masses of Cretaceous bedrock are a puzzling feature of these intertill deposits, and their presence is as yet completely unexplained. The occurrence of these large bedrock masses amid the Pleistocene drift is disconcerting. Slumping takes place with great ease in the soft, easily lubricated bedrock of the area,, but this is not thought to be the cause of their displacement. Slumping should cause more contortion and deformation of the beds than is found, and such extensive but relatively thin blocks would hardly be expected to hold together under such a method of transportation. The chief argument against slumping as then agent of transportation is the apparent lack of proper conditions of gradient necessary to cause such slumping. Shove or pushing by an ice-sheet also seemingly would not allow such widespread thin  blocks to retain their shape or even hold together during movement."

1962 Geologic Survey of Canada, A. MacS. Stalker


"The presence of huge slabs of intact bedrock in the drift seems enigmatic and strange in the glacial interpretation. It has been a source of embarrassment to glacialists such as Stalker, who called their presence disconcerting. The glacial theory does not easily accommodate or explain the emplacement of large slabs of rock over drift supposed to have been deposited either directly from ice, or when the proposed ice-sheet finally melted. Where the width to thickness ratio for the bedrock rafts is very large, the idea of glacial transport and deposition is rendered highly unlikely and impractical.

A mechanism for forming similar structures does not seem to exist in existing ice sheets. The presence of bedrock slabs, hundreds of square km in area, being transported in the base of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica would show up in seismic profiles, and should be rather easy to detect.

The lateral dimensions of bedrock rafts would probably be limited by the erosion of valleys that cut through them, in the environment of catastrophic erosion due to the currents of retreating flood waters. Also, expansion effects that accompanied the formation of the drift underlying megablocks may have caused lateral movements which could possibly cause extensive rafts to break up into smaller ones.

The sand, clay and gravel of the drift is explained by a disintegration of the sedimentary rocks, during former catastrophic conditions, that accompanied pressure release as overburden was eroded by currents, exposing fresh rock surfaces to lower pressure, and a stress gradient, in which the components of the rocks responded to the altered conditions. The process formed layers as it penetrated from the low pressure surface to the higher pressure."

Formation of the Esterhazy megablock

"While the sediments in the vicinity of the Esterhazy megablock were under hydrostatic stress, an uplift event generated currents which eroded the sediments in the area. Vertical stress was removed by the rapid erosion of overburden. This put the megablock and the surrounding rock under net horizontal compressive stress. Disintegration converted rock surrounding the megablock to drift. The disintegration penetrated deeper on all sides of the megablock, which forms a cap over a raised bedrock platform.

Horizontal compression in the surrounding drift was maintained, because the disintegration was accompanied by expansion. Currents of the retreating flood waters above eroded a valley in the drift, right through the middle of the megablock. This became the Qu'Appelle valley. Erosion and removal of drift in the valley exposed underlying rock to lower pressure so there was further disintegration. The valley was eroded deeper. The erosion removed much of the drift that filled the valley. Meanwhile disintegration also occurred in the buried Rocanville valley south of the megablock, which is roughly parallel to the Qu'Appelle valley, but it was not eroded. The disintegration penetrated to an even greater depth in this buried valley, which was much wider than the Qu'Appelle valley. The depth of the drift here is about 250 m (Figure 8 in Aber, 1989). When the disintegration was penetrating downwards in the buried Rocanville Valley, conditions in the adjacent rock at a particular level were apparently suitable for the disintegration to occur, and so a thin layer of drift was formed at that level, that separated the Odanah Member of the Pierre Shale from its base, forming what is called a megablock."


Have geologists found evidence for a flood?

https://creationconcept.info/GT/Flood_refs.html


Flood Evidence in Eastern Washington

https://creationconcept.info/scabland.html


Catastrophic Flood Dynamic Database

https://creationconcept.info/cfdb.html


Michigan's Fossil Whales

https://creationconcept.info/michwls.html




An Erratic Boulder in County Wicklow


"An erratic is a rock or boulder that is found in a location where, geologically speaking, it does not belong. Erratics first entered the scientific arena in the late 18th century when the Swiss geologist and mountaineer Horace-Bénédict de Saussure noticed that the southern slopes of the Jura Mountains were strewn with rocks and boulders of Alpine origin:

One will see that the majority of these stones and boulders are made of granite, foliated rocks, or other rocks of Alpine and primitive origin, while the ground on which they have been deposited is composed of limestone or sandstone, and therefore of a completely different nature. One will observe that these stones and large fragments are only ever found on the surfaces of the limestone or sandstone ridges, and that these same ridges never contain the slightest trace of them in their interiors. On the contrary, if one compares each of these stones with those found in the Alps, one will recognize them almost to the point of being able to identify the very rock from which the stone in question was broken off. One will remark that they do not belong to the soil on which they have been cast, and do not resemble the earth that surrounds them, that this same soil has completely different qualities to them, and finally that one finds none of them on the northern slopes of the Jura, but only on those of its slopes which lie opposite the Alps. After having weighed these considerations, one cannot but recognize that these fragments were not formed in this valley, or on the surrounding mountains; but that they are foreign bodies, adventitious, torn from the Alps, their native land, by a powerful agent, which has transported them, rounded their surfaces and piled them up in confusion. (Saussure §206:201-202)

Saussure had no doubt that this powerful agent was water:

§207: That water was this agent cannot in the least be doubted; because these stones, both large and small, are found deposited on horizontal ridges, mixed with sand and gravel, just as water transports them. For if one sees one of these fragments exposed on a rock, inspection of the site alone clearly demonstrates that rainwater or meltwater has carried off the lightest pieces, which formerly surrounded these large masses. (Saussure §207:202)"



Pierre à Martin, a large erratic near Ballaison


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2169555#msg2169555 (Island of California/Vermian Sea, seven consecutive messages)

The extinction of the mammoths occurred simultaneously with the end of the Tartarian Empire:




Extinction of the mammoths:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2171192#msg2171192

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2171410#msg2171410


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1936055#msg1936055 (almost perfect north-south orientation means that no tilt or change of poles has occurred since the Great Pyramid was constructed)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1635693#msg1635693 (mammoths and the stationary Earth hail of ice blocks)


High humidity of the Gizeh pyramid:

http://www.ldolphin.org/egypt/egypt1/index.html

Figures 39(a) and 39(b) show these results. Egyptian sands and granite from Aswan showed not only low losses by comparison, but also minimal sensitivity to ambient humidity. The environmental-chamber data showed not only that the losses of the Giza limestones were highly sensitive to local relative humidity, but also that the rocks were sufficiently porous so that small samples equilibrated with the environment in a few days' time. Evidently the rock samples lying around the surface at Giza, selected for our Giza laboratory tests, were slightly drier than either the bedrock or the large building blocks in which the in situ measurements were made, and this accounted for the lower losses in the samples even when measurements were made under Giza ambient environmental conditions.

During its autumn 1974 electromagnetic sounder experiments the joint Egyptian-American research team established that high attenuation due to high water content in the limestone of the Giza area precluded many practical applications of radio-frequency sounding for archaeological purposes in that area.


136.1/2 = 68.05

radius of the circle = 68.05 units

s = r x θ


θ = π/4

s = 53.44


θ = 2 radians

s = 136.1


θ = 286.1 degrees

s = 339.8

534 sc = 339.8


136.1 meters = 5343 sacred inches


51.8554 sc x Phi = 53.4


Missing apex = 286.1 sacred inches

Total height of the Gizeh pyramid (subterranean pit to apex) = 286.1 sacred cubits


« Last Edit: December 30, 2019, 07:41:58 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

  • Flat Earth Sultan
  • Flat Earth Scientist
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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #659 on: January 06, 2020, 11:29:03 AM »
GIZEH PYRAMID: HOW WAS IT ACTUALLY BUILT?



It has been shown that the Gizeh pyramid was not constructed using ropes, ramps, hydraulic methods or geopolymer concrete technology.

Acoustic levitation methods still leave unexplained the fact that 2.3 million blocks had to be actually cut from the limestone/granite quarries (using sonic drilling). While the acoustic levitation technique is a huge improvement over the geopolymer concrete procedure, the sheer number of the stone blocks (2.3 million) means that even had such an advanced antigravitational method been used, it would still be an impractical way to build a pyramid of this size.

Moreover, the construction of the four shafts would have required tremendous difficulties in having the adjoining blocks of stones fit to each other.





Then, there is only one possible explanation: the stones, the mortar utilized for some of the interior blocks, and the copper fittings found inside the shafts, came into existence by using a molecular construction method (materialization of the substances/elements).

It is of interest to note that this kind of materialization process technology was mentioned during a Stargate SG-1 episode:

https://stargate.fandom.com/wiki/Molecular_construction_device



"It allows you to design and configure something virtually and then materializes it."
Daniel Jackson

That is, the entire pyramid came into existence simultaneously, at once. A similar method was used for the other pyramids in Egypt, although on a much lower scale (perhaps a few blocks of stone being materialized at a time).


"The passages inside the pyramid are all extremely straight and precise, such that the longest of them, referred to as the descending passage, which is 350' 0.25" long deviates from being truly straight by less then 0.25 inches, while one of the shorter passages with a length of just over 150 feet deviates from being truly straight by a mere 0.020 inches. These and the above statistics prove the pyramid to be literally the most accurately constructed building on the face of the earth despite having been created several millennia ago. All theories which sufficiently allow for this level of accuracy assume a level of technology approximately equal to or exceeding current technology, at least in the area of tool making and construction.

Whether they can cast concrete or not, the idea that a civilization which did not even have the wheel could build a structure that was visually indistinguishable from the Great Pyramid, if they were willing to work hard enough to do it, could maybe be plausible. But the idea that they could have built such a structure, to those tolerances and with that degree of precision is laughable at best. The diamond-tipped blades typically used to cut large blocks of stone wear and warp (both due to mechanical stress and due to heat) during use sufficiently that they could not cut stone with that kind of precision -- to the casual observer the cut would look quite straight, but detailed measurements would not show the kind of tolerances found in the Great Pyramid."


"The accuracy and the precision of the Great Pyramid both at the level of individual blocks, and as a whole, are without precedent. Modern day engineers are at a loss as to how it was done. The tools described as necessary for the cutting of stone and the positioning of stone have never been found nor are they referred to in ancient records. The precise cutting of granite, including precise interior surfaces, requires complex, powered machinery with industrial diamond bits. The raising and exact positioning of granite blocks as heavy as 80 tons to heights as much as 300 feet above grade would require huge, powerful cranes – according to current industrial practice. It is simply beyond the capacity of wooden structures and human laborers. The entire positioning of the whole structure is so accurate that modern, surveying, optical equipment would seem to be an absolute necessity.

The interior fit of stones in the Kings Chamber and Great Gallery appears to be almost watertight. A mortar was used which had a higher hardness than the stones it was used on. The mortar was analyzed for elemental content but it has not been duplicated.

The construction has a hard industrial signature rather than an artistic one."


The flood occurred when the waters of Okeanos (the huge ocean which exists beyond the dome) were allowed to enter the space surrounded by the ether/aether shield (dome).

https://i.ibb.co/71z3cvT/enclosure3-1-4.jpg

There was also a huge hail of ice blocks:

Credo Mutwa, an 80-year old Zulu Sanusi (shaman) and elder from South Africa, and author of Song of the Stars: The Lore of a Zulu Shaman, gave a talk at the Living Lakes Conference, in California on October 2 1999, which included the following:

Let me tell you two last things please. One, it is this, that I am told by the great storytellers of our tribes, that fresh water is not native to our earth. That at one time, many thousands of years ago a terrible star, or the kind called Mu-sho-sho-no-no, the star with a very long tail, descended very close upon our skies. It came so close that the earth turned upside down and what had become the sky became down, and what was the heavens became up. The whole world was turned upside down. The sun rose in the south and set in the north. Then came drops of burning black stuff, like molten tar, which burned every living thing on earth that could not escape. After that came a terrible deluge of water accompanied by winds so great that they blew whole mountaintops away. And after that came huge chunks of ice bigger than any mountain and the whole world was covered with ice for many generations. After that the surviving people saw an amazing sight. They saw rivers and streams of water that they could drink, and they saw that some of the fishes that escaped from the sea were now living in these rivers. That is the great story of our forefathers.

https://www.varchive.org/itb/ecocean.htm (the origin of oceans)

« Last Edit: January 06, 2020, 11:39:00 AM by sandokhan »