Advanced Flat Earth Theory

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #480 on: February 13, 2018, 02:16:13 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX II


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2024144#msg2024144 (part I)

The Sagnac formula derived by Michelson (1904) and Silberstein (1921) is plain wrong: it is actually the Coriolis effect formula.



The equivalent form is:



But this is not the Sagnac formula for the phase shift.

The angular velocity is multiplied either by l (the long leg of the rectangle) or by h (the short leg of the rectangle); from the point of view of the Sagnac experiment this formulation that does not make sense at all.

The Sagnac phase shift formula has to include the angular velocity multiplied by the radius of the loop.

The only correct formula published for the case of an interferometer placed at the surface of the Earth in order to detect rotation is that for a rotating linear segment using phase conjugate mirrors.

SAGNAC EFFECT WITHOUT AN AREA OR A LOOP

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609202.pdf

The use of a phase-conjugate mirror has permitted new breakthroughs in the experimental science of the Sagnac effect.



The equation which expresses the relationship between interference fringes and time differences is F=dt[c/λ] (where dt = 4vL/c2).

This experiment shows us two important points. First, it confirms the phase reversal of a PCM and demonstrates the Sagnac effect in an arc segment AB, not a closed path. Second, it gives us important implications: The result, φ = 4πRΩL/cλ, can be re-written as φ = 4πvL/cλ where v is the speed of the moving arc segment AB (where R is the radius of the circular motion, Ω is the rotational rate).

If we increase the radius of the circular motion as shown in Fig. 6, the arc segment AB will approach a linear segment AB, the circular motion will approach the linear motion, the phase-conjugate Sagnac experiment will approach the phase-conjugate first-order experiment as shown in Fig. 4, and the phase shift is always φ = 4πvL/cλ.


The Sagnac effect for a ROTATING LINEAR SEGMENT interferometer IS: 2vL/c2, where v=RΩ.

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609222.pdf


We have the linear velocity (angular velocity x radius), and the length of the segment: this is the correct Sagnac formula.


The Michelson-Gale formula, by contrast, features NO LINEAR VELOCITY AND NO RADIUS OF THE LOOP, having eliminated the linear velocity from the very start: this is not the Sagnac phase shift formula.


How did A. Michelson obtain the Coriolis effect formula?







So, we can see that by applying the same reasoning as in the case of an interferometer which is being rotated in a lab, for an interferometer placed at the surface of the Earth to detect rotation, one will obtain the Coriolis effect formula and not the Sagnac phase shift formula.

What happens if the interferometer is placed like a billboard on the surface?

http://signandpop.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/billboard2.jpg

The same thing: one will obtain a final formula featuring l and h (the long leg and the short leg of the rectangular interferometer) multiplied by the angular velocity.

But this is not the Sagnac phase shift formula: it is the Coriolis effect equation.


Any derivation which will apply the same reasoning as in the case of the interferometer rotating in a lab to obtain a Sagnac phase shift, will feature a final formula involving the angular velocity and the area: a Coriolis effect equation.

The correct final formula has to show the linear velocity and the length of the curve which encloses the interferometer.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2023979#msg2023979 (the formula for the Sagnac phase shift which features the area and the angular velocity IS INCORRECT; only the formula which includes the linear velocity and the closed line of length L is CORRECT)


« Last Edit: June 07, 2018, 07:24:33 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #481 on: February 14, 2018, 04:22:07 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX III



The Michelson-Gale experiment recorded ONLY the Coriolis effect, which is thousands of times smaller in magnitude than the phase shift predicted by the correct Sagnac formula.

Thus, we have absolute proof that the Earth is stationary and that it does not rotate around its own axis: the experiment did not record/register the Sagnac effect.

The correct Sagnac formula should include vr and L (long leg of the rectangle); the correct formula for the interferometer placed at the surface of the Earth must contain a single speed and a single radius, perhaps pointed at the geometrical center of the interferometer.

The Coriolis effect formula derived by Michelson features only the area and the angular velocity. Since vr = r x Ω, and r = 6,378.164 km, the Sagnac is larger in magnitude than the Coriolis effect by at least the r = 6,378.164 km factor.

It is obvious that the fringe shifts recorded by A. Michelson and H. Gale did not register the Sagnac effect at all; only the Coriolis effect (much smaller in magnitude) was observed.

This means that the experiment proved that the Earth is stationary.

The experiment also shows that there is no such thing as the UA accelerator: the interferometer would have recorded any upward translational motion.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1848154#msg1848154

The ether is impeding the velocity of the light beams in the rotating table experiment of G. Sagnac and in the light signals sent by the GPS satellites to Earth.

The interferometer built by A. Michelson and H. Gale did not record the Sagnac phase shift, but only the Coriolis effect (see part I of this series on the Michelson-Gale experiment). The final formula and data published by Michelson and Gale, however, features only fringe shifts measurements caused by the Coriolis effect.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2024144#msg2024144 (part I)

« Last Edit: February 14, 2018, 04:29:18 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #482 on: February 16, 2018, 06:15:00 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX IV

The value of the main term of the Coriolis effect for an interferometer (in the shape of a rectangle, trapezoid, annular sector) located away from the geometric center of the rotation (of the turntable/Earth/circle) will be THE SAME as the value of the Sagnac effect for the same interferometer whose center of rotation now coincides with that of the turntable/Earth/circle.



Long leg = L

Short leg = h

The turntable/circle rotates with angular velocity Ω

The speed of the L segment = h/2 x Ω

vL = hΩ/2

The speed of the h segment = L/2 x Ω

vh = LΩ/2


vLL = ΩhL/2 = ΩA/2

vhh = ΩhL/2 = ΩA/2


Now, a rectangular interferometer (the same area and dimensions) located away from the center of rotation of the turntable/circle.



The Coriolis effect will be:

4ΩA/c2 (this term is multiplied by sinΦ, where Φ is the latitude)

http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/087/05/0071


In reality, the Michelson-Gale experiment actually measured the Sagnac fringe shift obtained for an interferometer whose center of rotation coincides with that of the Earth.

That is, a rectangular interferometer with the dimensions of 2010 ft (612.65 m) by 1113 ft (339.24 m) is simply placed with its center of rotation coinciding with the center of rotation of the Earth having a radius of 6,376.164 km.

But that is NOT the Sagnac phase shift for the original problem, where the same interferometer was placed on the surface of the Earth, at a distance of 6,378.164 km from the center of rotation.


The same results will be obtained in the case of an interferometer having the shape of an isosceles trapezoid or an annular sector of a circle (both are first placed away from the center of rotation, and then these interferometers are being placed with their center of rotation coinciding with the center of rotation of a circle/turntable.


The Coriolis effect value for an interferometer located away from the center of rotation will be THE SAME as the Sagnac effect value for the same interferometer whose center of rotation coincides with the center of rotation of the Earth/circle/turntable.


The true value of the Sagnac effect for an interferometer in the shape of a rectangle whose center of rotation is located away from the center of rotation of the circle/turntable could be calculated as follows: let h = the short leg of the rectangle, h1 the distance from the center of the circle to the lower long leg of the rectangle, and of course h2 = h1 + h, as the distance from the center of the circle to the upper long leg of the rectangle.

Unfold these sides which measure both L, to form a single segment of length 2L, using a phase-conjugate mirror for the rotating linear segment.

Then the value of the Sagnac effect will measure: 4ΩrxL/c2, where rx is the distance from the center of the circle to the upper leg of the rectangle.

The Coriolis effect is 4ΩA/c2, where A = Lh.

The Sagnac effect value will be very close to 4ΩrxL/c2.

The ratio will be rx/h.



« Last Edit: February 19, 2018, 12:53:51 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #483 on: February 17, 2018, 04:33:01 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX V



An interferometer in the shape of an annular sector is placed in the center of a circular turntable.

The upper circular arc (s1) is located at a distance r from the center of the circle.

The lower circular arc (s2) is also located at a distance r from the center of the circle.

s1 = R1 x θ
s2 = R2 x θ

2r = R1 - R2

If the annular sector interferometer is rotated, the formula obtained by a straightforward classic analysis, which features the area and the angular velocity, will also include two speeds:

dt = 2Ωθ(R12 - R22)/c2 = (2v1s1 - 2v2s2)/c2

If we UNFOLD the two circular arcs into one single segment of length L (L = s1 + s2), and use a phase-conjugate mirror, the Sagnac formula is:

dt = 2vLL/c2

vL = Ωr


If we place an interferometer in the shape of an isosceles trapezoid in the center of a circular turntable, and unfold the two parallel sides, l and L, A = l + L, and rotate the segment A as before, we get:

dt = 2vAA/c2

vA = Ωr

r = h/2 (h = height of the trapezoid connecting the sides l and L)




A rectangular interferometer, sides L and h.

The lower leg, L, is located at a distance h from the center of the turntable.

The upper leg L, of course, is located at a distance 2h from the center of the turntable.


Let us now unfold the perimeter of the sides where the light beams of the interferometer will be acted upon by the rotation of the turntable:

P = 2L

Now, we will have a rotating linear segment of length P, located at a distance of 2h from the center of the turntable.

The Sagnac formula will be:

dt = 2vPP/c2

vP = Ω x 2h

Thus, the Sagnac formula for the unfolded perimeter (now a rotating linear segment) will be THE SAME as the Sagnac formula for a rectangle with sides 4h and P (P = 2L), whose center coincides with that of the circle/turntable.


Now, the rectangular interferometer with sides L and h will be placed with the lower leg L tangent to the center of the circle/turntable.

The upper leg, L, will be located at a distance h from the center of the turntable.

The unfolding of the three sides, 2h and L, where the light beams will be acted upon by the rotation: M = h + h + L.

So, we will have a rotating linear segment of length M, situated at a distance of h from the center of the circle.

The Sagnac formula will be:

dt = 2vMM/c2

vMM = Ω x h

Thus, the Sagnac formula for the unfolded perimeter (now a rotating linear segment) will be THE SAME as the Sagnac formula for a rectangle with sides 2h and M (M = L + 2h), whose center coincides with that of the circle/turntable.


The rectangular interferometer with sides L and h will now be placed with the lower leg L at a distance 5h from the center of the circle/turntable.

The lower leg, L, is located at a distance 5h from the center of the turntable.

The upper leg L, of course, is located at a distance 6h from the center of the turntable.

Unfolding the sides of the perimeter whose light beams interact with the rotation: P = 2L.

Now, we will have a rotating linear segment of length P, located at a distance of 6h from the center of the turntable.

The Sagnac formula will be:

dt = 2vPP/c2

vP = Ω x 6h

Thus, the Sagnac formula for the unfolded perimeter (now a rotating linear segment) will be THE SAME as the Sagnac formula for a rectangle with sides 12h and P (P = 2L), whose center coincides with that of the circle/turntable.


Let us now unfold the perimeter of the rectangular interferometer used in the Michelson-Gale experiment.

The lower leg of the rectangle will be a distance of 6,377.825 km from the center of the rotation (in the heliocentrical version, the radius from the center of the Earth to Clearing, Illinois, is less than 6,378.164 km).

The upper leg of the rectangle will be located at a distance of 6,378.164 km (6,377.825 + 1113 ft (339.24 m = 0.33924 km)) from the center of the rotation.

Unfolding the sides: P = 2L.

Now, we will have a rotating linear segment of length P, located at a distance of 6,378.164 km from the center of the rotation.

The Sagnac formula will be:

dt = 2vPP/c2

vP = Ω x 6,378.164 km

Thus, the Sagnac formula for the the rotating linear segment (whose length is equal to 2L) will be THE SAME as the Sagnac formula for a rectangle with sides 12,756.328 km and P (P = 2L), whose center coincides with that of the rotation itself.


Thus, by contrast, A. Michelson and H. Gale actually calculated the Sagnac formula for a rectangle with sides 2010 ft (612.65 m) and 1113 ft (339.24 m) which is placed at the center of the rotation.

This is equivalent to calculating main term of the Coriolis effect formula, if we place the rectangular interferometer at the surface of the Earth, as was done in the Michelson-Gale experiment.

The ratio of the correct Sagnac formula to the Coriolis effect formula will be:

6,378.164/0.33924.


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2023979#msg2023979 (topological considerations of the Sagnac effect; only the formula which includes the linear velocity is correct)

« Last Edit: February 19, 2018, 01:58:16 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #484 on: February 18, 2018, 12:54:47 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX VI

Contrary to what physicists have been led to believe, up until 1995, the ONLY Sagnac experiments which were carried out while center of rotation was away from the geometric center of the turntable, were the tests performed by Georges Sagnac in 1913, and the Michelson-Gale experiment (1925). E.J. Post's comment that "the fringe shift does not depend on the location of the center of rotation" refers only to the Michelson-Gale experiment.

Sagnac moved the center of rotation just a few centimeters away from the geometric center of the turntable and did not realize that the area of the interferometer has nothing to do with the phase shift observed, and that the effect was distributed along a line and not over a surface.

Michelson and Gale used the formula for the Coriolis effect to verify the changes in the fringe shifts.

The original papers published by G. Sagnac:

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00241884/document

http://zelmanov.ptep-online.com/papers/zj-2008-07.pdf

http://zelmanov.ptep-online.com/papers/zj-2008-08.pdf

Bilger et al (1995) and Anderson et al (1994) used the Sagnac phase shift formula derived by A. Michelson, which was actually the Coriolis effect equation.

H.R. Bilger, G.E. Stedman, Z. Li, U. Schreiber and M. Schneider, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44(2), 468 (1995)
R. Anderson, H.R. Bilger and G.E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62(11), 975 (1994)




But this ring laser interferometer will measure ONLY the Coriolis effect of the ether drift, and not the Sagnac effect.

It is as if this interferometer with a side length of 4 meters would be placed with its center of rotation coinciding with the supposed center of rotation of the Earth. The fact that the interferometer is located THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS away from the center of rotation does not enter the Coriolis effect formula at all.

The correct Sagnac formula features a linear velocity (angular velocity multiplied by the radius of the loop).


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #485 on: February 18, 2018, 09:33:07 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX VII



The interferometer used by A. Michelson and H. Gale will be placed with the center of the rectangle concentric with a circle.



Then, the Sagnac phase shift will be:

dt = 4hLΩ/c2 = 8vhh/c2 = 8vLL/c2 = 4AΩ/c2

A = hL

vh = ΩL/2

vL = Ωh/2

This phase shift is the SAME as the main term of the Sagnac formula derived by A. Michelson for the interferometer located in Clearing, Illinois:

4AΩ/c2

The formula used by A. Michelson is the equation used for an interferometer whose center of symmetry is concentric with a circle.

If the interferometer is moved away from the center of rotation, the Sagnac formula becomes the Coriolis effect formula.

The real Sagnac formula for an interferometer which is located away from the center of rotation has to feature the linear velocity (angular velocity multiplied by the radius of the loop).

dt = 2vPP/c2

vP = Ω x 6,378.164 km

Thus, the Sagnac formula for the rotating linear segment (whose length is equal to 2L) will be THE SAME as the Sagnac formula for a rectangle with sides 12,756.328 km and P (P = 2L), whose center coincides with that of the rotation itself (see the previous several messages).



« Last Edit: February 19, 2018, 12:58:14 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #486 on: February 19, 2018, 01:40:48 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX VIII

The Sagnac effect derivation cannot be applied to a curved surface featuring two different radii:



The final phase shift formula will be the Coriolis effect equation, and not the Sagnac phase shift.

It can only be applied to a planar surface.

Let us now replace a sphere with a set of inscribed rectangles (the following image has circles instead):



Then, a straightforward analysis will reveal the correct Sagnac formula:

dt = 4rLΩ/c2 = 4vL/c2

r = 6,378.164 km

The formula for a rotating linear segment is:

dt = 2vP/c2, where P = 2L and r = 6,378.164 km


Now, for the rectangular interferometer, the orbital Sagnac effect can be computed as well:

dto = 2voP/c2, where vo = RΩo and R = 150,000,000 km

This can be multiplied by the sun's declination cosδ; however, on the day of the spring or autumn equinox, cosδ = 1.


Applying the analysis provided by A. Michelson to the orbital Sagnac effect, an erroneous final formula will be obtained (the sun's declination term is omitted):

dto = 4AvosinΦ/Rc2 = 4AΩosinΦ/c2

R = 150,000,000 km and A = Lh

But this is equivalent to placing an interferometer having an area of (A x 30/0.465) concentric with the center of rotation of the Earth (or of a turntable).

By contrast, the correct Sagnac effect formula is:

dto = 2voP/c2, where vo = RΩo and R = 150,000,000 km (P = 2L)

« Last Edit: February 19, 2018, 01:50:19 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #487 on: February 20, 2018, 11:28:59 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX IX



The Michelson-Gale experiment used the Coriolis effect formula to calculate the observed fringe shift. However, it was fully equipped to detect the orbital Sagnac effect and also the galactic Sagnac effect, none of which were observed (in addition to the fact that the correct rotational Sagnac phase shift was not recorded/registered either).


The Sagnac phase shift formula used in the GPS satellite signals calculations is also a Coriolis effect equation.

The light signal sent by the GPS satellite to Earth is deflected by the ether drift: a translational motion through the ether.

In a rare admission, the principal proponent of the theory of relativity as it applies to GPS technology acknowledges that the Coriolis-like term of equation (9) is related to the Sagnac effect:

https://books.google.ro/books?id=RW4PCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA399&lpg=PA399&dq=gps+sagnac+light+anisotropy&source=bl&ots=T66rUaUXo1&sig=CmoNUl9KdC1lQqb9pyC13X4Zobg&hl=ro&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5zYLM9LTZAhVOUlAKHb9UC18Q6AEIcjAI#v=onepage&q=gps%20sagnac%20light%20anisotropy&f=false

(pg. 397)

The ether drift theory incorporates the correction term attributed to the Sagnac effect naturally into the final formula:

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/viewFile/30130/17851

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.651.7591&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The Sagnac "correction" is calculated as follows in the currently accepted model:

"This leads to a simple description of the Sagnac correction: ∆tSagnac is 2ωE/c2 times the area swept out by the electromagnetic pulse as it travels from the GPS transmitter to the receiver, projected onto earth’s equatorial plane."



The same author also adds a SECOND triangle to the total sum which makes up the area, in another work:



Even so, the final formula will feature an angular velocity multiplied by an area of the equatorial projections: this is a Coriolis effect formula (dt = 4ΩA/c2).

And the ether drift theory even includes this "correction" term in the accurate interpretation of the light transmission from a satellite to the surface of the Earth.

It is to be noted that MLET (Modified Lorentz Ether Theory) is false (an ether field which surrounds/encloses the spherical Earth, but does not rotate along with the Earth): the Whittaker potential theory requires both electrogravitational waves (bidirectional longitudinal strings) to rotate with the Earth:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2009680#msg2009680



« Last Edit: February 20, 2018, 11:32:21 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #488 on: February 22, 2018, 01:31:12 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX X



https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1023972214666

https://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0103091.pdf

Coriolis Force and Sagnac Effect

Because of acting of gravity-like Coriolis force the trajectories of co- and anti-rotating photons have different radii in the rotating reference frame, while in the case of the equal radius the effective gravitational potentials for the photons have to be different.




An interferometer with DIFFERENT RADII (located away from the center of rotation) will manifest the Coriolis force in the form of a phase shift 4AΩ/c2.

This formula is the equivalent of a Sagnac phase shift, where the interferometer is placed concentric with the center of the rotation of the turntable.

The real Sagnac phase shift will feature a linear velocity and the radius of the loop.


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288491190_SAGNAC_EFFECT_A_consequence_of_conservation_of_action_due_to_gauge_field_global_conformal_invariance_in_a_multiply-joined_topology_of_coherent_fields

SAGNAC EFFECT: A consequence of conservation of action due to gauge field global conformal invariance in a multiply-joined topology of coherent fields


https://books.google.ro/books?id=qsOBhKVM1qYC&pg=PA85&dq=Lakhtakia+Barrett,+T.W.+electromagnetism&hl=ro&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV3IXAmbnZAhXKJVAKHeebCnUQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=Lakhtakia%20Barrett%2C%20T.W.%20electromagnetism&f=false

T.W. Barrett, "Electromagnetic Phenomena Not Explained by Maxwell's Equations" pg 6 - 85

The Michelson-Gale experiment detected ONLY the Coriolis effect, and NOT the rotational Sagnac, nor the orbital Sagnac, nor the galactic Sagnac.

Each and every ring laser interferometer located away from the center of rotation will record the Coriolis effect: none of these interferometers have detected the rotational/orbital/galactic Sagnac effects.

« Last Edit: February 22, 2018, 01:33:12 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #489 on: February 22, 2018, 07:01:42 AM »
DEPALMA SPINNING EFFECT ON LONG DISTANCE ARTILLERY PROJECTILES



https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg753387#msg753387 (DePalma spinning ball experiments)

"The precise application of Newton’s laws … have to be restricted to non-rotating mechanical objects in field-free space. In a gravitational field, the possibility of extraction of greater energy by a new mechanical dimension [rotation] opens up the possibility of an anti-gravitational interaction"

Dr. Bruce DePalma, 1977


"Artillery projectiles are spinning at a very high speed when they exit the barrel of the gun. The spinning stabilises the projectile in flight and makes it more accurate."

http://nigelef.tripod.com/fc_ballistics.htm

For artillery projectiles spin rates in the order of 20,000 revolutions per minute are needed, rifle bullets are an order of magnitude greater.

The rotation of the projectile (its spinning rate) will radically alter both its mass and its inertia.

The rotation produces a TORSION FIELD which will attract the Whittaker potential waves (ether longitudinal waves) thus forming an ether vortex around the projectile which will impart antigravitational properties.

The magnitude of this effect is totally unaccounted for by modern science, in fact it is attributed to curvature calculations.

But the DePalma effect can only take place on a flat stationary Earth, since both the gravitational and the antigravitational strings/waves of the electrogravitational field of the Earth must rotate at the same rate above the surface of the Earth.

The Eotvos effect is caused by the rotation of the ether field; a superb study of the seminal paper published by Roland Eotvos on gravitational anomalies almost 100 years ago (his discoveries remain completely unexplained by modern science):

http://mek.oszk.hu/02000/02054/html/onehund.html

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg953747#msg953747 (geocentric Coriolis effect)

« Last Edit: February 22, 2018, 07:03:28 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #490 on: February 25, 2018, 03:02:27 AM »
BIEFELD-BROWN EFFECT II

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg759935#msg759935

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852363#msg1852363

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1913909#msg1913909


Dr. Takaaki Musha
Advanced Space Propulsion Investigation Committee (ASPIC)
Research Engineer on Naval Systems, Technical Research & Development Institute
Honda R&D Institute, Biefeld-Brown effect experiments

http://jnaudin.free.fr/lifters/musha/Musha.pdf

Explanation of dynamical Biefeld-Brown Effect from the standpoint of ZPF field

In 1956, T.T. Brown presented a discovery known as the Biefeld-Bown effect (abbreviated B-B effect) that a sufficiently charged capacitor with dielectrics exhibited unidirectional thrust in the direction of the positive plate.

From the 1st of February until the 1st of March in 1996, the research group of the HONDA R&D Institute conducted experiments to verify the B-B effect with an improved experimental device which rejected the influence of corona discharges and electric wind around the capacitor by setting the capacitor in the insulator oil contained within a metallic vessel . . . The experimental results measured by the Honda research group are shown . . .

. . . The theoretical analysis result suggests that the impulsive electric field applied to the dielectric material may produce a sufficient artificial gravity to attain velocities comparable to chemical rockets.


https://web.archive.org/web/20120710005059/http://www.ovaltech.ca/pdfss/Theoretical_Explanation_of_the_Biefield-Brown_Effect.pdf

Experiments carried out at the HONDA R&D Institute confirm that the Biefeld-Brown effect is real.


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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #491 on: February 25, 2018, 10:26:59 AM »
HAMMAR EXPERIMENT HOAX



“D. C. Miller explains in his report that the difference between his results and those of other experimenters in the field may be due to entrapping of the ether in the heavily enclosed apparatus of the other investigators, while his own apparatus is quite open to the outside atmosphere. If this explanation be correct, it should be possible to detect a differential light velocity between a light beam in a heavily walled tube with stopped ends held in the direction of the earth's velocity and a light beam just outside and parallel to the tube.”

G.W. Hammar, 1935

Basically, the geometry of the light path is that of a Sagnac interferometer, using an odd number of reflections.

The aether wind would affect the speed of light differently for the shielded arm (encased in a heavy steel tube with lead plugs) and the unshielded arm.

With evident satisfaction, Dr. Adrian Sfarti (UC Berkeley) entitles his paper: "The Wonderful World of Hammar’s Experiment":

http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/PSIJ_33/2016/Nov/Sfarti1242016PSIJ29643_1.pdf

However, the entire experiment is a hoax; that is why no fringe shifts were detected, or could have been detected.

G.W. Hammar committed the same error as did A. Michelson and H. Gale: he did not realize that the Sagnac interferometer was located AWAY FROM THE SUPPOSED CENTER OF ROTATION OF THE EARTH. The apparatus was set up two miles south of Moscow, Idaho.

Therefore, no rotation was detected by the Sagnac interferometer: not the rotational Sagnac, nor the orbital Sagnac, nor the galactic Sagnac.

The only detection possible with Hammar's interferometer was the CORIOLIS EFFECT of the ether drift.

But the encased arm of the interferometer could not detect the ether drift at all, just as Dayton Miller had predicted (the CD arm was encased in a heavy walled steel tube with lead plugs).

Even though the interferometer did have two arms which within the context of a spherical Earth hypothesis were connected to two different radii (distance from the center of the Earth to the arms of the interferometer itself), one of the arms could not detect the Coriolis force of the ether drift, due to it being encased in steel and lead.

That is why no fringe shift was detected, or could have been detected.


« Last Edit: February 25, 2018, 10:32:29 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #492 on: February 26, 2018, 02:25:58 AM »
NIPHER EXPERIMENTS II

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852840#msg1852840 (part I: the relationship between gravitation and the electric field first observed experimentally by Dr. Francis Nipher)

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0509/0509068.pdf

Experimental Indications of Electro-Gravity

Dr. Timir Datta, University of South Carolina

Nipher experiments revealing the connection between electricity and terrestrial gravity performed in 2003 and 2004.


In view of the results published by Roland Eotvos, Dr. E. Fischbach (Purdue University) has proposed the following modification to the law of universal gravitation:



Of course, in the experiments done by R. Eotvos (1906-1909) only a slight gravitational perturbation was measured.

The acoustic levitation of the granite blocks carried out in Tibet showed that the effect of terrestrial gravity was completely canceled out:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1388219#msg1388219

« Last Edit: February 26, 2018, 02:29:06 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #493 on: February 26, 2018, 06:07:33 AM »
SUPERCONDUCTOR PODKLETNOV EFFECT II



https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1833949#msg1833949 (part I)

A rapidly spinning disc of superconducting ceramic suspended in the magnetic field of three electric coils, was tested with a variety of materials and objects suspended above it, with measurable and consistent effects. In each case, the objects suspended above the rotating magnetic fields lightened by from 0.5 percent to 2 percent.

When Dr. Eugene Podkletnov increased the rotation speed to 20,000 rpm, the loss of weight became 5%. The highest speed that could be obtained was 30,000 rpm, where the loss of weight was 9% (figures offered by Dr. Podkletnov in the 2004 interview at the Tampere Technical University in Finland).

"In 1995, the Max Planck Institute of Physics did a follow up study, and was able to confirm the results."



https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9505094.pdf


Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged Y Ba2Cu3O7-y Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure

https://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0108005.pdf

The observed phenomenon appears to be absolutely new and unprecedented in the
literature. It cannot be understood in the framework of general relativity.


Weak gravitation shielding properties of composite bulk Y Ba2Cu3O7-x superconductor
below 70 K under e.m. field


https://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/9701074.pdf

A toroidal disk with an outer diameter of 275 mm and a thickness of 10 mm was prepared using conventional ceramic technology in combination with melt-texture growth. Two solenoids were placed around the disk in order to initiate the current inside it and to rotate the disk about its central axis. Samples placed over the rotating disk initially demonstrated a weight loss of 0.3-0.5%. When the rotation speed was slowly reduced by changing the current in the solenoids, the shielding effect became considerably higher and reached 1.9-2.1% at maximum.


Study of Light Interaction with Gravity Impulses and Measurements of the Speed of Gravity Impulses

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281440634_Study_of_Light_Interaction_with_Gravity_Impulses_and_Measurements_of_the_Speed_of_Gravity_Impulses

An attempt has been made in this work to study the scattering of laser light by the gravity-like impulse produced in an impulse gravity generator (IGG) and also an experiment has been conducted in order to determine the propagation speed of the gravity impulse. The light attenuation was found to last between 34 and 48 ns and to increase with voltage, up to a maximum of 7% at 2000 kV. The propagation time of the pulse over a distance of 1211 m was measured recording the response of two identical piezoelectric sensors connected to two synchronized rubidium atomic clocks. The delay was 63±1 ns, corresponding to a propagation speed of 64c.


"Dr. Podkletnov also describes his “force beam generator” experiment in detail, and provides insights into improvements that he’s made over the last decade to increase the force produced by this experimental gravity-beam. The force beam is generated by passing a high-voltage discharge from a Marx-generator through a YBCO emitter suspended in a magnetic field, and Podkletnov has described it as being powerful enough to knock over objects in the lab, as well as capable of being tuned by even punch holes in solid materials.

Podkletnov maintains that a laboratory installation in Russia has already demonstrated the 4in (10cm) wide beam’s ability to repel objects a kilometre away and that it exhibits negligible power loss at distances of up to 200km."


G-acceleration is a VARIABLE whose value can be decreased in direct proportion to the amount of ether generated (by sound, by double torsion, by a high-electrical field).

As the temperature of the superconductor reaches the level of temperature of the ether, the subquark lattice state of the material will approach that of the baryon state of ether of the atom.

If the superconductor is being rotated at high speed, the Whittaker potential ether longitudinal strings will begin to form a torsion field which will act as a terrestrial gravity shield.

The gravity-beam created by Dr. Podkletnov is able to modify at a much higher speed than normal the ether quantum state of the target (allowing it to reach the baryon state of ether).


« Last Edit: March 12, 2018, 06:35:48 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #494 on: February 27, 2018, 12:19:08 AM »
DEPALMA SPINNING EFFECT ON LONG DISTANCE ARTILLERY PROJECTILES II



It is assumed by modern science that “differences in spin rate do not affect the aerodynamic coefficients”. (Ballistics 2011, 26th International Symposium, pg. 474)

“How far the bullet drops has nothing to do with spinning other than that it keeps it in the most favorable aerodynamic position”.

But spinning has everything to do with the calculation of the range, as proven by the experiments carried out by Dr. Bruce DePalma.





For a spinning projectile, the flat earth expression for the range should be:

R = {vo2(sin 2θo)}/f(k)

k is the variable electrogravitational value, which depends on the altitude, the atmospheric ether tide, the density of ether at a certain altitude, and the spin rate

The curvature factor is ~EQUAL to the antigravitational effect produced by the spin rate of the projectile which forms a torsion field which partially cancels out the g force.

Let vo = 1,000 m/s and θo = 45 degrees (neglecting air drag and other factors such as the Coriolis and the Eotvos effects).

R = [1,0002sin90degrees][{1 + 1,0002cos2(45deg)}/(9.81x6,378,164)}]/9.81 = 102.7514 km

The curvature factor is: 1.007991

Even though f(k) is a nonlinear function of k, let's approximate this factor by k in order to get an estimate:

Rflat earth = 101.937 km

102,751.4 = 1,0002sin90degrees/k

k = 9.73223

"The only explanation for this effect is that both balls are drawing energy into themselves from an unseen source, and the rotating ball is thus “soaking up” more of this energy than its counterpart – energy that would normally exist as gravity, moving down into the earth.

With the addition of torsion-field research we can see that the spinning ball was able to harness naturally spiraling torsion waves in its environment, which gave it an additional supply of energy."

https://depalma.pairsite.com/Absurdity/Absurdity05/SecretOfForceMachine.html

The original Force Machine was constructed in 1971, figure (1). The total weight of the apparatus was 276 lbs. The "active" mass at the rim of the flywheels was 10 lbs. The assembly was suspended from a spring scale and the gyroscopes driven counter-rotating at 7600 r.p.m. Under these conditions the support cylinder was driven at 4 r.p.s. to precess the gyros. A consistent set of experiments repeatably showed 4 - 6 lbs. of weight loss.

“In DePalma’s device, two magnetized gyroscopes were mounted side-by-side within a cylinder, (see next image,) spinning in opposite directions to each other — one clockwise and the other counterclockwise.

Both gyroscopes (here referred to as flywheels) were in the same position, with the bottom of their axles pointing straight downward and the top of their axles straight upward.

The cylinder that held these gyroscopes in place was then also made to rotate from its side, causing the axles of the gyroscopes to continually rotate end-over-end in the vertical plane like spokes in a spinning wheel.

Since the inertial forces generated by the gyroscopes cause them to naturally resist being moved out of position, even more aetheric energy could be harnessed by forcing them to do so. And as we said in the last chapter, defying gravity is as simple as gathering some of the downward-streaming aetheric energy and redirecting it off to the side, like the bending of a hose. This redirection can be accomplished by simple rotation.”



“Dr. DePalma‘s “Force” machine would initially weigh 276 lbs. before being activated. The gyroscopes would be driven in counter-rotating directions at 7600 rpm each, and then the entire cylinder would be rotated or precessed at 4 revolutions per second. Any movement faster than this would create internal forces great enough to fracture the support axles for the gyroscopes, which would destroy the machine.

Once the Force Machine was running at this speed, it would repeatedly show 4-6 lbs. of weight loss!”


http://depalma.pair.com/gyrodrop.html (experiment carried out by the team of researchers who worked with Dr. Bruce DePalma)

Gyro Drop Experiment

In this experiment a fully enclosed, electrically driven gyroscope is released to fall freely under the influence of gravity. The elapsed time taken to fall a measured distance of 10.617 feet was measured, with the rotor stopped and also with the rotor spinning at approximately 15,000 RPM.

Data was gathered on a Chronometrics Digital Elapsed Dime Clock measuring 1/10,000 second, actuated by two phototransistor sensors placed in the paths of two light beams which were consecutively interrupted by the edge of the casing of the falling gyroscope.

A fully encased, spinning gyroscope drops faster than the identical gyroscope non-spinning, when released to fall along its axis.


The word “curvature” has to be replaced with the phrase “DePalma spinning effect” in the US Naval manual for curvature calculations applied to the range of the projectile:

https://i2.wp.com/mathscinotes.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/CurvatureTable1.png?resize=768%2C723 (Table of Curvatures for Different Horizontal Ranges)

Rotational bodies have different 'classical' principles such as:

- variable inertia

- variable gravitational acceleration either up or down (the spinning ball launch experiment)


Drag coefficients:

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/802065.pdf

http://astrowww.phys.uvic.ca/~tatum/classmechs/class7.pdf


Coriolis approximation:

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a010816.pdf


Fin-stabilized projectiles are used to extend the range and also to improve maneuverability.

https://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/bullets2.htm

https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.194220/2015.194220.Trajectory-Analysis-Of-A-Fin-Stabilized-Artillery-Projectile#page/n0/mode/1up

https://glosbe.com/en/en/fin%20stabilizer

Fin stabilizers with canards extend the range by nearly double:

https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=itj.2014.2658.2665



« Last Edit: October 04, 2018, 01:35:49 PM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #495 on: February 28, 2018, 05:33:15 AM »
DEPALMA ACCUTRON EXPERIMENT

https://depalma.pairsite.com/Absurdity/Absurdity09/NatureOfElectricalInduction.html (appendix)

"Dr. Nikolai Kozyrev, a respected Russian astrophysicist, announced almost fifty years ago that he had discovered a new force in physics that he called the “density of time.” He concluded that the rate at which time passes can be altered by other physical processes."

Time not only has a pattern of flow, says Dr. Kozyrev, but also a rate of flow. He calls "the rate of flow" the difference between cause and effect. "As the rate of the time flow through a substance changes, weight is lost," Dr. Kozyrev told us.”

Time is a torsion potential (also called a scalar wave).

Time is the dextrorotatory torsion field (subquark string), or terrestrial gravity.

Anti-time is the laevorotatory torsion field, or antigravity.

The flow of time and anti-time can cause matter to either increase or decrease in weight.

Both torsion potentials/scalar waves form the Whittaker potential.


"DePalma proposed, as a result of his wide-ranging rotational experiments, that "rotating masses" in general set up an "inertial field" in their vicinity (the more widely-used term for this field now, because of how it's accessed, is a "torsion field" -- because "torsion" means literally "rotation")."



'What this means is simple.

If measured along the rotational axis (as seen in the diagram - above) ... this "torsion field" from the resulting rotation seemed to increase the inertia of other moving objects (such as the tuning fork inside the Accutron); but, if the watch was rotated 90 degrees -- into the plane of the masses rotation -- the Accutron's tuning fork inertia abruptly decreased ...!

Again, these differences -- measured "within the spin field" -- were NOT slight ... or ambiguous.

A 1000-second measurement period (~17 minutes ...) produced almost a full second (0.9 sec) lag in the Accutron's previous time setting; the normal drift rate of the watch -- as measured by DePalma before and after each experimental "run" -- was about 0.25 second per a four hour period .... The effect of a nearby, rotationally generated "inertial field" on the Accutron's vibrating tuning fork -- a field created solely by spinning a ~30-lb aluminum/steel disc, at almost 8000 rpm -- was definitely NOT "buried in the noise!""


"Kozyrev’s work was so awesome and extraordinary in its implications, not only for the development of the foundations of theoretical physics, but also for its dangerous potential applications, that the Soviet leadership wisely classified it at the very highest levels. Indeed, it was Kozyrev, in fact, who laid the experimental basis and outlined the theory of Soviet research into that area of physics often called “scalar” physics, but it might equally, and probably with more justification, be called “torsion” physics.

Kozyrev’s analysis “brought him to a conclusion that the processes of thermonuclear
synthesis cannot serve as a main source of stellar energy.” In other words, the fusion-gravity geometry model of standard stellar processes — a geometric model inspired in large part by Einstein’s General Relativity and extrapolations from it performed by other scientists — was simply not able to account for the enormous energy pouring out of stars. Some other mechanism altogether was at work.

Dr. Kozyrev outlined the fundamentals of his whole physics and philosophical approach in a paper first published in 1967: “The Possibility of Experimental Study of the Properties of Time.” The title itself is suggestive, and breathtaking enough. But the contents of the paper — especially for one reared in the milieu of post-relativistic physics — as Dr. Kozyrev like all academic physicists was, is even more stunning. He announces his philosophy, and program, in no uncertain terms:

In reality, the exact sciences negate the existence in time of any other qualities other than the simplest quality of “duration” or time intervals…. This quality of time is similar to the spatial interval. The theory of relativity by Einstein made this analogy more profound, considering time intervals and space as components of a 4-dimensional interval of a Minkowski universe. Only the…geometry of the Minkowki universe differentiates the time interval from the space interval. Under such a conception, time is scalar and quite passive. It only supplements the spatial arena, against which the events of the universe are played out. Owing to the scalarity of time, in the equations of theoretical mechanics the future is not separated from the past; hence, the causes are not separated from the results. In the result, classical mechanics brings to the universe a strictly deterministic, but deprived causality. At the same time, causality comprises the most important quality of the real world.

1. Time is not merely a “scalar” or “one-dimensional entity” in the geometry of space-time; it is not, therefore, to be viewed in the sense that the geometry of General Relativity — the Minkowski space — or for that matter, most physical theory, views it, namely, as merely duration; and,

2. That because physics has tended throughout the centuries to view time in only this way — as mere duration — modern physics in particular has no really adequate way to distinguish cause from effect with formal, mathematical, explicitness.

What Einstein did in his General Theory of Relativity, as many know, is that he made time a fourth dimension in the mathematical description of an object, since any physical object not only existed in space, but endured in time.

But this dimensionless “duration-only” description of time was completely inadequate, according to Dr. Kozyrev, for by pointing out the “scalarity” of time, he is simply pointing to the obvious fact that as a “dimensionless” entity it is not comprised of further “parts,” so to speak. One cannot therefore adequately distinguish a “cause” from its “effect” within mathematical physics with any degree of formal, mathematical precision, since this idea of “mere duration” is incapable of further formal analysis. Time, on this physical view, was a passive player, and not an active contributor, to physical processes and forces. It was merely a backdrop or stage on which those processes and forces were played out. By viewing time as a non-scalar, Kozyrev has announced his philosophy, and his program: time is active and possessed of its own inherent parts and qualities, and experimental physics must investigate these with all the scientific rigor as it investigated other active forces and properties in previous centuries. With this insight, in other words, Kozyrev announced a wholesale assault on two of the foundations of modern physics and some of its hidden, and very counterintuitive, assumptions: Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics.

To put it differently, since Kozyrev views time as an active participant in systems, he views the systems of physical processes in a profoundly different way from standard physical mechanics, in that for him they are (1) open systems and (2) systems more or less far from equilibrium. More is involved, in other words, in the notions of cause and effect than the merely statistical probabilities of standard quantum mechanics.

Since time is not, on Kozyrev’s view, merely a dimensionless scalar, this means in turn that it can have, like a vector of force in ordinary mathematical physics, a direction, a movement from one point to another, or what he calls, “the directivity of time.” It is this non-scalar, almost vector-like quality that Kozyrev means when he states that time is in its own right a kind of physical force, hitherto not adequately understood by contemporary physics as an exact science, but once understood when in its infancy centuries ago as a natural science. On this more ancient “teleological” view, “causality is linked in the closest way with the properties of time, specifically with the difference in the future and the past.”

Time enters a system through the cause to the effect. The rotation alters the possibility of this inflow, and, as a result, the time pattern can create additional stresses in the system. These variations produce the time pattern. From this it follows that time has energy.

Note that one aspect of Kozyrev’s basic theoretical conception was in fact confirmed, namely, that the local space of a system itself appeared to have a spin orientation; it was not simply a “void with a curvature,” as the post-Einstein popular imagination would have it, but it was a space with a dynamic property: an orientation to rotation.

Kozyrev leaves nothing to chance and spells out the implications of these observations and experimental data quite clearly: “Hence, time possesses not only energy but also a rotation moment which it can transmit to a system.""

(from The Philosopher's Stone by J. Farrell)



« Last Edit: February 28, 2018, 05:36:16 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #496 on: February 28, 2018, 12:16:40 PM »
EULER'S PRESSURE GRAVITY

In the official chronology of history, one can find these most remarkable passages in the works attributed to Euler, which clearly describe the real cause of terrestrial gravity:

“Now, in whatever way we imagine the cause of gravity, as it is the effect of the pressure of a fluid, the force with which each molecule is pushed will always be proportional to the extension or the volume of that molecule. Indeed it is a general rule of hydrostatics that fluids act according to the volumes: a body immersed in water is always pushed by a force equal to the weight of an equal volume of water, but in an opposite direction.”

“the matter which constitutes the subtle fluid, cause of the gravity, is of an utterly different nature from the matter, of which all sensible bodies are composed. There will hence be two kinds of matter, one which provides the stuff to all sensible bodies, and of which all particles have the same [high] density [...]; the other kind of matter will be that of which the subtle fluid, which causes gravity, and which we name ether, is composed of. It is probable that this matter has always the same degree of density, but that this degree is incomparably smaller than that of the first kind.”

L. Euler, “Recherches physiques sur la nature des moindres parties de la matiere,” in Leonhardi Euleri Opera Omnia, Series Tertia, Pars Prima (B. G. Teubner, Leipzig and Bern 1911), pp. 3–15

“Those who attribute gravity to an attractive force of the Earth base their opinion mainly on the fact that otherwise no origin could be displayed for this force. But since we proved that all bodies are surrounded with ether and are pressed by the elastic force of the latter, we do not need to search elsewhere the origin of gravity. Only if the pressure of the ether would be everywhere the same, which assignment is indistinguishable from that of its equilibrium, would the bodies be equally pressed from every side, and thus would not be induced in any motion. But if we assume that the ether around the Earth is not in equilibrium, and that instead its pressure becomes smaller as one comes closer to the Earth, then any given body must experience a stronger pressure downwards on its superior surface that it does upwards on its inferior surface; it follows that the downwards pressure will have the advantage and hence that the body will really be pushed downwards, which effect we call gravity, and the downwards-pushing force the weight of the body.”

L. Euler, “Von der Schwere und den Kraften so auf die himmlischen Korper wirken,” in Leonhardi Euleri Opera Omnia, Series Tertia, Pars Prima (B. G. Teubner, Leipzig and Bern 1911), pp. 149–156

(translation by Dr. M. Arminjon)

Dr. Arminjon (CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier/Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble) has published this version of Euler's ether pressure gravity:

g = gradpep

∆pe = 4πGρρe

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852870#msg1852870 (Subquark g force: gradient ether gravitation, Newton's ether pressure theory)

In the same official chronology of history, Newton totally based his terrestrial gravitation theory on magnetism:

http://www.gsjournal.net/old/science/ricker9.pdf (“Hypothesis Non Fingo” The Nature of Newton’s Hypothesis and The Concept Of Attraction sections)


« Last Edit: February 28, 2018, 12:27:06 PM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #497 on: March 01, 2018, 12:34:03 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION



http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.424.4364&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Gravitational Induction and the Gyroscopic Force
(A hydrodynamical theory of gravity that accounts for the gyroscopic force)


The true terrestrial gravitational equation must include additional terms which can account for the DePalma/Kozyrev experiments and also for the Coriolis force effect.

"A general theory of gravity based on hydrodynamical principles which introduces three additional components that are not catered for by Newton’s law of gravitation. These three components link gravity directly with electromagnetism as well as fully accounting for the induced gyroscopic force in terms of the Coriolis force.

Newton’s law of gravitation is only concerned with the radial component of gravity.

This equation enables us to extract an enormous amount of information out of what is officially considered to be nothing at all. To begin with, equation (1) assumes the existence of an inertial frame of reference in which the background stars appear to be fixed. This implies the existence of some kind of aethereal medium with which motion is measured to be relative to. The very concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration, imply the existence of particles moving in that aethereal medium. Equation (1) further tells us about the nature of the forces which act between particles in the aether, in relation to position, velocity, angular velocity, and angular acceleration. This connectivity between the aether and particles, manifested in equation (1) suggests that particles and the aether are two parts of the same overall entity."



When equation (1) was derived, it was assumed that empty space is rigid. We will now assume that space is dynamical and replace angular velocity ω with the vorticity vector H which is related to ω through the equation:



Since GM/r2 is the totally incorrect gravitational equation, this term must be replaced by the ether pressure:

gradpep

A hydrodynamical theory of gravity in which the aether imparts its acceleration to a particle.



This equation accounts FOR ALL OF THE PHENOMENA left unexplained by Newton's single term gravitational formula: the DePalma/Kozyrev experiments, the Sagnac/Coriolis effect, the gravitational/magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Podkletnov effect, the Biefeld-Brown effect, the Nipher effect.

"We can summarize the current deficiencies in both gravitational theory and electromagnetic theory.

In gravitation, we are missing both the Coriolis/gyroscopic component and the angular acceleration component. The Coriolis/gyroscopic component is sadly missing from all contemporary accounts relating to the theory of gyroscopes."

The gravitoelectromagnetism equations derived from the TGR only include the gravitational field strength/torsion field, and because it is assumed that terrestrial gravitation is a force of attraction, they can only apply to very special situations.

Using advanced topology, a generalized Lorentz force can be derived which also includes FOUR COMPONENTS, among which are the DePalma/Kozyrev force field terms:

http://www.naturalphilosophy.org/pdf/abstracts/abstracts_5970.pdf

The g acceleration is a VARIABLE: the three additional components of the correct gravitational equation include the contributions of the DePalma/Kozyrev force term, the Sagnac/Coriolis term and are expressed through the vorticity equation.


« Last Edit: March 01, 2018, 12:36:04 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #498 on: March 02, 2018, 08:02:06 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION II



The difference in aether pressure generates an aether flow velocity. The difference in the aether flow velocities creates a pressure difference according to Bernoulli’s equation (the pressure in a fluid decreases as its velocity increases).

Bernoulli’s equation is used to relate the aether steady flow velocity change and the aether pressure change. A key concept of calculating universal gravity force is that the pressure acting on an object is induced by aether steady flow velocity variation.

Aether pressure will fluctuate with aether steady flow velocity.

T.-W. Lin (National Taiwan University)
H. Lin (General Motors Global Propulsion System)


Bernoulli’s Principle describes the inverse relationship between speed and pressure.


All that remains to be described is the BOUNDARY LAYER between the spinning ball (capacitor/rotating superconductor magnet) and the ether torsion field.

« Last Edit: March 02, 2018, 08:04:16 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #499 on: March 02, 2018, 10:06:10 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION III: IMPLOSION OF THE ATOM



Terrestrial gravity represents the dextrorotatory string of the Whittaker potential waves. It exerts a force of pressure on matter. The effects attributed to “global warming” are a direct consequence of the growth of the rate of vibration of the gravitational strings: they increase both the desertification phenomena and the disintegration of the glaciers. The anti-gravitational string can be brought into play by double torsion, sound and the application of high-electrical fields. There is a direct relationship between the addition of the anti-gravitational ether energy and the decrease in the action/effects of the  gravitational dextrorotatory strings upon matter.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1830644#msg1830644 (implosion of the atom, part I)

The rotation/spinning at a high rate of an object will cause the atoms to slightly implode: to achieve the baryon state of ether. That is, the centrifugal action of the rotation will cause the normal configuration of the atom (groups of 18 subquarks) to change into groups of 9 subquarks (baryons, fourth state of ether; mesons are the third state of ether, quarks the second state, and subquarks represent the first position of ether).  The outer surface (or edge) of the object will have a higher distribution of the slightly imploded atoms, thus attracting the Whittaker potential ether waves to the rotating body. The ether waves will form a torsion field around the object, partially shielding it from the influence/effect of the pressure gravity (dextrorotatory string), thus resulting in a lower value of the g acceleration.

In the Biefeld-Brown effect, the charging of the capacitor under high voltage, will activate the laevorotatory subquarks of the capacitor causing a slight implosion of the object, and the forming of a torsion field around it, which will act as a gravity shield.

The shape of the torsion field will be that of two overlapping cones:



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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #500 on: March 03, 2018, 12:01:55 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION IV: TESLA CONICAL COILS


Tesla’s conical coil, demonstrated in his lab in 1895.

http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ins/tcpop03.html

Tesla cone coil, patent #593,138:



The conical coil was one of Tesla’s secrets which he disclosed only to his best friend, Walter Russell. The overlapping conical coils design allows for the creation of ball lightning spheres, acts as a plasma generator, and can generate an antigravity torsion field.

The overlapping coils model acts as a plasma pinch:

https://www.plasma-universe.com/Pinch

There is also the potential pinch (force-free ball lightning pinch).

Ball lightning created at the Jnaudin Labs:

http://jlnlabs.online.fr/plasma/gmrtst/index.htm

“What Tesla discovered in 1900 with his high voltage experiments is that he could diminish the gravity force dominating in our world simply with decompressing the ether where there is no law of gravity. In other words he was decompressing the ether with his special built cone coils producing high velocity voltage with brush discharge around the object.”



Walter Russell’s overlapping coil design:

http://www.svpvril.com/Cosmology/vortexsphere.gif



http://www.rexresearch.com/russellcoil/russellcoil.htm


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #501 on: March 05, 2018, 03:47:23 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION V



The atmosphere of the flat earth is stationary.

The field of ether rotates above the flat surface of the Earth causing the Coriolis force, and also it levitates the clouds and the gases (using the Biefeld-Brown effect), generating the barometer pressure paradox.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg759968#msg759968 (levitation of cumulonimbus clouds which weigh one billion tons)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1707294#msg1707294 (barometer pressure paradox)

Atmospheric pressure IS ether pressure: the radiation pressure of the ether waves (Whittaker potential bidirectional longitudinal strings which flow through subquark transverse waves).

The height of the spherical cap which is the shape of the Earth up to the first dome is some 10km-25km (10,000m-25,000m).

Modern science tells us that the weight of a column of air which has a cross section of 1 square inch and which stretches from the surface of the Earth to the top of the atmosphere (some 80 km in altitude) is 14.7 pounds.

Therefore, given the figure of the real height of the atmosphere (~10km-25km), it is clear that the 14.7 lbs/in2 value is caused by a totally different factor: the radiation pressure of the  ether.

Any object (in the normal state of matter) in the atmosphere (or on the surface of the Earth) will be pushed down by the radiation pressure of the ether.

p = ρhg

p = 6.65kg/0.0645m2

h = 10,000-25,000 m

The figure for the vacuum permeability commonly used by modern science is 1.2566 x 10-6. However, this figure has to be wrong, since the speed of the longitudinal ether strings (which travel through the transverse ether waves) can be much greater than the speed of light.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1918701#msg1918701 (the original dynamical J.C. Maxwell equations are invariant under Galilean transformations, permitting superluminal speeds)



For superluminal speeds, the electric permittivity has to be much lower, while the value of the magnetic permeability has to be higher (these figures arise due to change of units from Gaussian to SI).



A column of water 32.2' (9.81 m) (cross-section 1 square inch) generates a pressure at the bottom of one atmosphere.

That is, this value will be equal to that of the g acceleration. Modern science assumes that the proportions of the ingredients of the air (distribution of gases) have varied since the formation of the Earth, yet we are to believe that now the atmospheric pressure on a column of water will generate a height of the liquid in the glass tube of exactly 9.81 m (the value of the g acceleration).



http://www.orgonelab.org/newtonletter.htm (I. Newton letter to R. Boyle)

4. When two bodies moving towards one another come near together, I suppose the aether between them to grow rarer than before, and the spaces of its graduated rarity to extend further from the superficies of the bodies towards one another; and this, by reason that the aether cannot move and play up and down so freely in the strait passage between the bodies, as it could before they came so near together.

5. Now, from the fourth supposition it follows, that when two bodies approaching one another come so near together as to make the aether between them begin to rarefy, they will begin to have a reluctance from being brought nearer together, and an endeavour to recede from one another; which reluctance and endeavour will increase as they come nearer together, because thereby they cause the interjacent aether to rarefy more and more. But at length, when they come so near together that the excess of pressure of the external aether which surrounds the bodies, above that of the rarefied aether, which is between them, is so great as to overcome the reluctance which the bodies have from being brought together; then will that excess of pressure drive them with violence together, and make them adhere strongly to one another, as was said in the second supposition.

Terrestrial ether pressure gravity equations using the displaced volumes:

http://bourabai.kz/gorbatz/gravity-e.htm

Terrestrial ether pressure gravity equations using ether velocity and pressure:

http://aethermechanics.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Newtons-Laws-of-Motion-Based-Substantial-Aether-Theory-of-the-Universal-Gravity-Force.pdf

Subquark g force:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852870#msg1852870

1 bar = 0.98692 atm

π2 = 9.8696

760 mm = 29.92 sacred inches = 47 sc

The Navier-Stokes equations for the aether fluid:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.06763.pdf

Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium
Dr. Valeriy I. Sbitnev
St. Petersburg B. P. Konstantinov Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, UC Berkeley

« Last Edit: March 10, 2018, 12:48:39 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #502 on: March 07, 2018, 05:07:13 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION VI



The flow of longitudinal boson strings (superpotential) through subquark transverse waves (potential).

The g acceleration is a variable: increasing the velocity/angular acceleration will decrease the pressure and the g acceleration.


g = (-P/ρh + rH2/4)radial + (vXH + (1/2)rdH/dt)tangential


P/ρ + v2/2 = const

P/ρ + v2/2 + hg = const

Two other additional terms have to be added to the g equation, for the Biefeld-Brown effect (the vorticity of the electromagnetic potential) and for the acoustic levitation (the vorticity of the superpotential).


A clear distinction has to be made between the density and the impedance of transverse waves (Hertzian waves) and the density and the impedance of longitudinal strings (non-Hertzian waves).

http://bourabai.kz/gorbatz/ether-e06.htm

The density of the transverse waves will decrease as the density of the longitudinal strings which will form a torsion field (ball lightning) will increase.


Z = ρ x c = (μ00)1/2

c = (1/μ0ε0)1/2

ρ = Z/c = μ0

As the velocity increases, the density of the longitudinal waves will increase, while the g acceleration and the pressure will decrease.

The vacuum of space is a Whittaker superpotential lattice of superluminal boson strings.

The g acceleration can be modified if the longitudinal boson strings can be activated.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1832699#msg1832699 (the nuclear tokamak activates 1014 laevorotatory subquarks/positrons)


« Last Edit: March 09, 2018, 12:33:19 PM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #503 on: March 10, 2018, 06:41:57 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION VII



A magnetic skyrmion has been produced in a laboratory for the first time:

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/4/3/eaao3820.full.pdf

"Skyrmions are the name of a general class of particles that are made by twisting a field. When this field is a magnetic field, the skyrmions are called magnetic skyrmions."

https://www.livescience.com/61946-ball-lightning-quantum-particle.html

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/3/eaao3820.full

Magnetic fields and ball lightning:

https://www.nature.com/articles/243512b0

https://www.nature.com/articles/383032a0


The Tunguska ball lighthing spheres had approximately 100 meters in diameter.

"Tesla’s hypothesis on the origin and maintenance of fireballs includes some points which are also to be found in the most recent theories, but it also bears the stamp of the time. For instance, Tesla considers that the initial energy of the nucleus is not sufficient to maintain the fireball, but that there must be an external source of energy."

The geomagnetic disturbances recorded from June 27, 1908 to June 30, 1908:

http://tunguska.tsc.ru/f/4780/MainPart/7-The-Third-Key.pdf

Minutes after the explosion, a magnetic storm began that lasted some five hours.

N. Tesla could create ball lightning spheres with a diameter of 3 cm in a laboratory. This means that Tesla used a very large scale interferometry to produce the two spheres at a significant distance from his laboratory, and also create a huge magnetic permeability factor to activate the longitudinal boson strings which formed a torsion field around each ball lightning sphere reaching a diameter of some 100 meters. The diameter of the two spheres increased in size from 3 cm to 100 meters using the Whittaker potential strings, the entire phenomenon produced the recorded geomagnetic disturbances.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1995026#msg1995026

The Heaviside curl flow (longitudinal strings):

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2001928#msg2001928



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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #504 on: March 12, 2018, 02:33:30 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION VIII



ε02.4π = G

2.4π = 5.34 x 1.4134725 = 4.8/sc

ε0 = 8.854187817 x 10-12 s4a2/m3kg = vacuum permittivity (transverse/vectorial waves)

ε002 = g(π/2 - 1)

π/2 - 1 = 1/1sc - 1

µ0 = 1.25663706 x 10-6 mkg/s2a2 = vacuum permeability (transverse/vectorial waves)

µ02(1/1sc[1 - 1sc])g = G

In the Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (article 5, chapter 1), J.C. Maxwell notices that mass may be expressed in terms of length and time: M = L3/T2.

This proves immediately that G is dimensionless:

http://milesmathis.com/ug.html

Thus, just like the official chronology of history informs us, one can proceed along the same lines and reasoning offered by Newton, and assign the proper units to the constants 2.4π and (π/2 - 1).

The sacred cubit is a fundamental physical quantity constant: it represents the wavelength across which the two Riemann zeta functions propagate inside a boson.

h = 6.62607004 x 10-34 J s = 5/(0.534 x 1.4134725) x 10-34 J s (Planck constant)

(6.62607004 x 10-35)1/8 = 5.3414 x 10-5

lP = 1.616229 x 10-35 m = 2.5426sc x 10-35m = 4sc2 x 10-35 (Planck length)

2.5424 = one sacred inch

0.6356 = one sacred cubit


G acceleration is an increased rate of absorption of aether. Aether flowing into the dextrorotatory vortices of matter is terrestrial gravity; matter, flowing rapidly through ether/aether, acceleration, is experienced as the g force.

An object in free fall gains kinetic energy as evidenced by the acceleration (a measure of the amount of aether flowing through the dextrorotatory receptive vortices of the subquarks).

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852870#msg1852870 (subquark g force)


Both g and G are variables, as are the vacuum permittivity and the vacuum permeability of the transverse waves. Once the longitudinal strings are activated, this variability increases.

g = (-G/{µ02(1/1sc[1 - 1sc])} + rH2/4)radial + (vXH + (1/2)rdH/dt)tangential + (AxX)Biefeld-Brown + (SxX)acoustic levitation

« Last Edit: March 17, 2018, 03:46:30 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #505 on: March 13, 2018, 01:02:33 AM »
HYDRODYNAMIC GRAVITY EQUATION IX


Thames Water Barometer

The height of the liquid column does not rise because of atmospheric pressure. It is an extraordinary antigravitational effect and a proof of the existence of laevorotatory subquark strings.

At a higher altitude the laevorotatory longitudinal strings have a greater than normal rate of vibration, while the pressure of the dextrorotatory strings decreases.



At the higher altitude, the antigravitational strings have a greater effect on the air inside the plastic bottle; at the lower elevation, the dextrorotatory receptive vortices of the atoms of air inside the container will be activated to a greater extent, practically causing the plastic bottle to implode.

AG + TG = const

AG = antigravitational force

TG = terrestrial gravitational force

The antigravitational force is acting permanently on  matter; it causes the tidal waves of the ocean. It is able to counteract the g force in liquids which can flow through a vertical tube/conduit/capillary:  (for a vertical tube, h = gk/ρ, where k = 1 for water). The brownian motion in gases is caused by the effect of the laevorotatory strings.

http://www.rsarchive.org/RelArtic/Marinelli/ (the heart is not a pump)



A simple mercury barometer constitutes the most direct evidence of the existence of antigravitational waves/strings.

Dr. E. Podkletnov placed a mercury manometer (similar to a barometer) over the superconducting disc and recorded a 4-mm reduction in air pressure, because the air itself had been reduced in weight. Then he took the manometer upstairs to the lab above his and found exactly the same result - as if the equipment were generating an invisible column of low gravity extending upward indefinitely into space.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2031798#msg2031798

“A column of air one square meter in cross section is said to weigh over 100,000 Newtons or 10.2 metric tonnes or 11.2 (short) tons at sea level. This leads any child to ask how the human body can stand up under so much weight. And if we do a websearch, we do indeed find an answer for children at a NASA information site:

Why doesn't all that pressure squash me? Remember that you have air inside your body too, that air balances out the pressure outside so you stay nice and firm and not squishy.

That answer is so misleading I think we can call it an outright lie. The human body is not filled with air, except in the case of flatulent answers like this. The body is about 62% water, so the water must equalize most of any air pressure that exists. The body is made up of cells, remember, and cells are not filled with air. Cells can be as much as 90% water. Yes, the body contains oxygen that it gets from the air, but this oxygen is dissolved in the blood. It does not persist as air or continue to have air pressure once it enters the blood stream. Your lungs are the only things “filled with air” and only when you breathe in. If the air in your lungs was equalizing several tons of pressure, then when you breathed out your body would implode.

Let's go to a different sort of website: David Esker's site, which is often quite informative. David says this about atmospheric pressure:

The area on the face of an average adult's hand is about 0.0116 m2 or 18.0 square inches so there is about 1200 N (270 pounds) of force bearing down on an average adult human hand. Since the pressure is the same for both inside and outside of us, the net forces balance out to zero. Rather than weighing us down, we are indifferent to this force.

We may be indifferent to this force, but David should not be so indifferent to the questions begged here. If we have 270 pounds bearing down on one hand, why doesn't that force register on a normal scale? Go look at your bathroom scale. The atmosphere should be pressing down on that scale right now. Why doesn't it register a number? That scale is probably about a square foot, so it should register about a ton, or 2,000 pounds. Why don't we have to re-zero all bathroom scales to 2,000 pounds? If we did that, wouldn't that mean that I really weigh 2,170 lbs?

The only remaining dodge at this point is for the mainstream scientist to mimic the NASA feint and claim the scale is full of air. “For the scale to compress, there must be space underneath it, and that space is filled with air. The pressure underneath the scale equals the pressure above it, so it doesn't register the weight of the air.” This ridiculous argument is actually the accepted one: I am not making it up. The problem, if you don't already see it, is that these scientists have claimed the human body is also filled with one atmosphere of pressure, from air or otherwise; and if we weigh that body, it is standing on a scale also “floating” on air. Therefore the human body should also weigh nothing on the scale, according to this logic. If a column of air weighing 11 tons can be completely levitated by air pressure, why not a 170 pound man? The experts might say it is a matter of density, but neither Newton's nor Einstein's equations have a density variable in them. The force of gravity is supposed to be a function of mass, not density. If it is a matter of density, how does the field know I am denser than the column of air? Mr. Gravity is looking up at me and the column from underneath: how does he know I have more density than the column of air?

Or, return to David Esker's example. If I put my hand flat on a table, he claims there is 270 pounds of force bearing down on it. My hand is acting like a scale, and it “feels” 270 pounds of weight. But, like the scale, my hand is already pressurized. Why does my hand feel the weight but not the scale? If I lift my hand a fraction of an inch off the table, there is now air underneath it. Is my hand now equalized, like the scale? Do I now feel no force from the atmosphere? If I feel no force from the atmosphere, why does my hand not swell up to twice its size, like an astronaut in a hard vacuum without a spacesuit?

What if I lay my hand on the scale: am I to believe that my hand feels the force but not the scale? One of these scientists answered me that the top of my hand equalized the weight of the air, so that it was not transferred to the scale. The problem here, if you cannot see it already, is that if the top of my hand is capable of pushing back with 270 pounds of force, the bottom of my hand should be, too. In which case the scale will be feeling that force.

These scientists want us to believe that if we removed the atmosphere, we could wear cows as hats without stooping and could jump up to the clouds just by the strength of our calf muscles. If my outstretched arm can resist 800 pounds of atmospheric weight, then, without the atmosphere, I should be able to lift 800 pounds with one hand. Do you believe that? I don't. Can you lift 300 pounds with one arm, straight out to the side, on the top of a tall mountain? You should be able to, according to their math. Can you even lift a third more weight than normal at the top of a tall mountain? No, and it has nothing to do with being shagged out from lack of oxygen.

Let me explain what I mean by “levitating force.” Current theory tries to explain the zero-weight of the atmosphere on scales by one of two dodges. I have already ridiculed one dodge. The other dodge is that the lower atmosphere levitates the upper atmosphere, via air pressure. Each level is levitated by the level below it. The lowest level of the atmosphere is in equilibrium, being caught between the upper levels and the surface of the Earth. The air pressure of this lowest level pushes equally against the Earth and the upper levels, so the net force is zero. Scales exist in this lowest level, so they do not register a weight or force.

Again, I did not make this up. Many or most people are satisfied with that kind of answer, which makes one frightened for the future. Even someone with the intelligence of David Esker is satisfied with that kind of answer. He has not seen fit to question it. In fact, NO ONE has questioned it, that I know of. As I have shown in my book, hundreds of extremely transparent questions are begged in broad daylight, and thousands of truly despicable answers are posted to simple questions—as above with NASA—and no one ever budges an inch. Not only does your average web surfer not blink an eye, all the Russells and Feynmans and Godels and Hilberts and Wiles have passed them by without a pause—too busy with fake math to notice that the atmosphere doesn't register on a scale and things like that.

But just stop and analyze that answer for a moment. Gasses are hard to picture, so let us replace that lowest level of the atmosphere by Atlas. Say we let Atlas hold up the atmosphere. He puts one hand on the Earth and holds the atmosphere up with the other hand. Like the gas, he would create an equal and opposite force in each direction. And, also like the gas, we could sum those forces. Since they are in vector opposition, the vertical forces would sum to zero. So far so good. But now let us put a scale under his hand on the Earth. According to the answer above, the scale would read nothing, since the forces have summed to zero. Do you still believe that? Do you really think that one hand of Atlas could hold up the sky without creating any pressure on that scale with the other hand? If you believe it, you must also believe in the sky hook.

No, we have a real problem here. We have a reverse Chicken Little problem, since the standard model cannot explain why the sky is not falling. The sky has mass, so it should have weight, but it registers nothing on the scale. How is that possible? How can a column of air that weighs 11 tons fail to fall or register on a scale? Anything else that weighed 11 tons would fall and would register on the scale. If you propose that air pressure levitates the column of air, you must explain why that same air pressure does not levitate an elephant. If you claim that it is because there isn't enough air under the elephant to do the job, you imply that more air might do the job. If we took the elephant up to an altitude of five miles, would he be levitated then? Would he be partially levitated?

And that brings us back to the air in the scale. It was claimed above that the air in or under the scale was enough to levitate the 11 ton column of air. If the air under the scale can levitate an 11 ton column of air, why can it not levitate a 4 ton elephant?”


« Last Edit: March 13, 2018, 02:09:55 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #506 on: March 17, 2018, 03:39:46 AM »
SUPERCONDUCTOR PODKLETNOV EFFECT III



Dr. Podkletnov offered more details regarding the gravity shielding experiment to Nick Cook (Aviation Editor of Jane's Defence Weekly, The Hunt for the Zero Point):



Using 30 cm discs (so strong that the president of Toshiba had been able to stand on one without breaking it) and a rotational speed of ~50,000 rpm, Dr. Podkletnov achieved the full Biefeld-Brown effect (" the disc experiences so much weight loss that it actually takes off").

A similar rotational speed was used during the Kronos Projekt to implode the mercury atoms:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1773379#msg1773379



The rotational speed actually used, I believe, was ~53,440 rpm, and this is directly related to the hydrodynamic gravity equation.

Interview with Dr. Eugene Podkletnov (2004, Tampere University):




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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #507 on: March 17, 2018, 09:09:28 AM »
IMPLOSION OF THE MERCURY ATOM



http://www.subtleenergies.com/ormus/oc/chaptr06.htm

Density of mercury: 13,610 kg/m3

Density of water: 1,000 kg/m3


G = (5 x 2.67)10-11/2 = 5.34 x 1.25 x 10-11

h (Planck constant) = 2.676/sc2 x 10-34 = (5.343 x 2)/(4sc) x 10-34

lp (Planck length) = 4sc2 x 10-35

h/lP = (5.343 x 10)/8sc4


10-12/2 x g x 1.361 = G = (5sc x 5.343)/2.5424 x 10-11 = (50 x 1.361)/16sc x 10-11

5.343 x 0.25424 = 1.361

(height/radius of the baryon) x g x density of mercury = pressure (value of G)

That is, if the normal pressure can be reduced to that of the value of G, then the density of mercury will decrease by a factor of 13.61 (density of water), and the value of g will also decrease (g x sc). As always, the units can be added later (as noted before, G is actually dimensionless).

P + ρv2/2 + ρhg = const

P = ρhg = G

G + ρv2/2 + G = const

If P decreases all the way to a value equivalent to that of G, then v must increase by a very large amount.

53,4882 = 2,861,000,000 (2.861 displacement factor of the Gizeh pyramid, 286.1 = 450 sc)

G x 53,4322 = 10/sc

If the rotational speed is increased to 53,488 rpm, then the atom of mercury will implode to the first state of ether (baryon ether): its density will decrease by a factor of 13.61.






ρtransverse waves + ρlongitudinal waves = const


Die Glocke was comprised of two counter-rotating cylinders, rotating a purplish liquid-metallic looking substance code-named "Xerum 525" by the Vril society, at high speeds.

Xerum = implosion of the mercury atom to the baryon state of ether

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1830644#msg1830644 (implosion of the atom)


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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #508 on: March 18, 2018, 08:12:47 AM »
TOPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SAGNAC EFFECT II

Using very advanced concepts from topology, T.W. Barrett proves that the Sagnac effect can only be described by the original set of the equations published by J.C. Maxwell.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1919728#msg1919728

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288491190_SAGNAC_EFFECT_A_consequence_of_conservation_of_action_due_to_gauge_field_global_conformal_invariance_in_a_multiply-joined_topology_of_coherent_fields

Moreover, in the Sagnac effect there are two vector potential components with respect to clockwise and counterclockwise beams. The measured quantity, as will be explained more fully below, is then the phase factor or the integral of the potential difference between those beams and related to the angular velocity difference between the two beams. Therefore, as the vector potential measures the momentum gain and the scalar potential measures the kinetic energy gain, the photon will acquire “mass.”














https://books.google.ro/books?id=qsOBhKVM1qYC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=electromagnetic+phenomena+not+explained+by+maxwell%27s+equations&source=bl&ots=Hurq5SQ-EG&sig=iMhWIxjuFrg9Co763une7Dnpmf0&hl=ro&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi1m-6DmfDZAhUiSJoKHR7RCikQ6AEIOzAC#v=onepage&q=electromagnetic%20phenomena%20not%20explained%20by%20maxwell's%20equations&f=false

T.W. Barrett, "Electromagnetic Phenomena Not Explained by Maxwell's Equations" pg 6 - 85

From a topological point of view, the Heaviside-Lorentz equations are a LINEAR THEORY, U(1).

When extended to SU(2) or higher symmetry forms, Maxwell's theory possesses non-Abelian commutation relations, and addresses global, i.e., nonlocal in space, as well as local phenomena with the potentials used as local-to-global operators.


The different velocities of clockwise- and counter-clockwise-rotating light beams in the Sagnac interferometer are due to the motion of the ether.


The observed interference effect is clearly the optical whirling effect due to the movement of the system in relation to the ether and directly manifests the existence of the ether.

G. Sagnac

This ether is a dynamic, and not an inert, ether.

The Michelson-Gale experiment measured the CORIOLIS FORCE of the rotation of the potential (ether).

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2024144#msg2024144

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2029623#msg2029623

"In 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis wrote a paper in which he mathematically derived equations of motion for rotating coordinate systems. In this paper he drew attention to two categories of supplementary forces. Coriolis referred to these forces in the plural. The forces in the first category were the ordinary centrifugal forces, while the forces in the second category were described as being equal to twice the product of the angular velocity of the mobile plane, taken with respect to the relative momentum as projected unto that plane. By analogy with the mathematical formula for the ordinary centrifugal forces, Coriolis called this second category of supplementary forces ‘The compound centrifugal forces’.

The Coriolis force results from a compound motion involving two independent yet physically connected motions, one of which is linear, and the other of which must be of a rotatory nature. Just like centrifugal force, it acts to deflect an element perpendicularly to its path of motion. Its mathematical expression is exactly twice that of the centrifugal force, but unlike in the expression for centrifugal force, the angular velocity term and the linear velocity term in the Coriolis force are independent of each other. French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis referred to it as a “compound centrifugal force” in a paper  which he wrote in 1835, and it will be here proposed that the Coriolis force is the compound resultant of two opposing centrifugal forces that are pressing on each side of a body perpendicularly to the direction of motion.

This compound centrifugal force appeared in Maxwell’s original equations as a force per unit volume in the form μvxH, where v is the velocity relative to the sea of molecular vortices. The quantity μ is related to the density of this sea, while the vorticity H the mutually aligned vortices is the magnetic field intensity. In the case of rotating electron-positron dipoles, which we will equate with Maxwell’s molecular vortices, the vorticity H is equal to 2ω, where ω is the angular velocity. Written in the form 2μvxω, the compound centrifugal force then becomes identifiable as the familiar Coriolis force."

F.D. Tombe

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2023979#msg2023979 (topological considerations of the Sagnac effect, part I)


« Last Edit: March 18, 2018, 08:16:21 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #509 on: March 24, 2018, 02:45:59 AM »
MICHELSON-MORLEY EXPERIMENT HOAX



"My honored Dr. Michelson, it was you who led the physicists into new paths, and through your marvelous experimental work paved the way for the development of the theory of relativity."

A. Einstein, speech at the Pasadena Atheneum banquet, 1931

"Michelson invented his interferometer in 1881 to compare c2 (1), the two way speed of light along arm 1, to c2 (2), the two way speed of light along arm 2. The interferometer was improved for the 1887 MM experiment. According to MM’s negative or null interpretation , they did not observe any difference between c2 (1) and c2 (2)."

Dr. W.M. Hicks (1902) revealed the effect of the changes in temperature and the averaging used by A. Michelson upon the data gathered in the experiment. J. Raymond Redbourne has proven that A. Michelson did not take into account the compression/extension effect on waves as they move from one portion of the wave medium to a portion moving at a different velocity. Milan R. Pavlovic showed that the magnitude of the interference shift was actually twice as big as the one that Michelson and Morley calculated. S. Das demonstrated that Michelson and Morley did not treat the light velocity as a vector. M.A. Handschy re-examined the large systemic trends of the MM experiment. E. Morley teamed up with Dayton Miller (1902-1906) and obtained positive effects of the experiment. It may be noted that the Morley-Miller experiments involved 995 turns of the interferometer in the period 1902-1905, while the MM experiment only consisted of 36 turns of the apparatus in the period July 8-12, 1887. Technological design of the experiment, and its environmental control were similar in both cases. R.H. Cahill proved that the MM experiment performed in vacuum will nullify the final results.

However, none of these authors managed to show the most basic flaw in the Michelson-Morley 1887 experiment, the error which explains the null result obtained.

In 1999 E. J. Post showed the equivalence between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac experiment.

E. J. Post, A joint description of the Michelson Morley and Sagnac experiments.
Proceedings of the International Conference Galileo Back in Italy II, Bologna 1999,
Andromeda, Bologna 2000, p. 62

E. J. Post is the only person to notice the substantial identity  between the 1925 experiment and that of 1887: "To avoid possible confusion, it may be  remarked that the beam path in the more well-known Michelson-Morley interferometer, which was mounted on a turntable, does not enclose a finite surface area; therefore no fringe shift can be expected as a result of a uniform rotation of the latter".

E. J. Post, Reviews of Modern Physics. Vol. 39, n. 2, April 1967



A. Michelson and E. Morley SIMPLY MEASURED THE CORIOLIS EFFECT OF THE ETHER DRIFT. Since they did not use a phase-conjugate mirror or a fiber optic equipment, the Coriolis force effects ("attractive" and "repulsive") upon the light offset each other.

The positive (slight deviations) from the null result are due to a residual surface enclosed by the multiple path beam (the Coriolis effect registered by a Sagnac interferometer). Dayton Miller also measured the Coriolis effect of the ether drift in his experiment (Mount Wilson, 1921-1924 and 1925-1926, and Cleveland, 1922-1924).

Michelson repeated his error in the Michelson-Gale experiment, where he used the WRONG formula (Michelson and Gale actually recorded the CORIOLIS EFFECT and not the Sagnac effect). Hammar also committed the same error.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2024144#msg2024144

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2029623#msg2029623

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2031383#msg2031383

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2023979#msg2023979 (professor R. Wang MM experiment using phase-conjugate mirrors)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg865008#msg865008 (fake TSR/MM experiments)

Dr. Patrick Cornille (Essays on the Formal Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory, pg. 141):



Dr. Patrick Cornille (Advanced Electromagnetism and Vacuum Physics, 2003, pg. 150-157) has provided a thorough examination of the fact that the Michelson-Morley interferometer is actually a Sagnac interferometer with zero area:




https://books.google.ro/books?id=73VpDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=michelson+morley+interferometer+does+not+enclose+an+area+null+result&source=bl&ots=pQpIo4VJpM&sig=aruUeS-xQUTXVxN40XPtxmxFMhE&hl=ro&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiU5IiEl4PaAhVHZ1AKHXa
https://forum.cosmoquest.org/showthread.php?116299-Michelson-Morley-explained-in-uniformly-rotating-frames2DvMQ6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=michelson%20morley%20interferometer%20does%20not%20enclose%20an%20area%20null%20result&f=false

















« Last Edit: March 31, 2018, 03:59:00 AM by sandokhan »