Advanced Flat Earth Theory

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #450 on: December 10, 2017, 03:19:14 AM »
WHITTAKER SCALAR POTENTIAL WAVES

"E.T. Whittaker is one major player and part of 20th century physics akin to Poincare or Lorentz. Whittaker was, in 1954, selected by the Fellows of the Royal Society to receive the Copley Medal, the highest award granted by the scientific Royal Society of London, "for his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics". Back in 1931 Whittaker had received the Royal Society's Sylvester Medal "for his original contributions to both pure and applied mathematics"."

The achievements of the 1903 and 1904 papers published by Whittaker:

A scalar potential is comprised of a lattice of bidirectional longitudinal waves (ether/Tesla strings).

Electromagnetic or gravitational fields and waves can be decomposed into two scalar potential functions.

The unification of quantum mechanics, general relativity, ether theory into one single subject: ELECTROGRAVITY.

How to construct a scalar interferometer: a standing scalar wave structure.

An extended version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

The discovery of the fact that internal EM is generally completely inside the scalar potential, existing as “infolded” harmonic sets of EM antiparallel wave/antiwave pairs.   This internal EM was in Maxwell’s original quaternion equations.

The superluminal speed of gravitational waves.













"Whittaker proved the existence of a "hidden" set of electromagnetic waves traveling in two simultaneous directions in the scalar potential of the vacuum -- demonstrating how to use them to curve the local and/or distant "spacetime" with electromagnetic radiation. This key Whittaker paper thus lays the direct mathematical foundation for an electrogravitic theory/technology of gravity control.
 
In the second paper, Whittaker demonstrated how two "Maxwellian scalar potentials of the vacuum" -- gravitationally curving spacetime -- could be turned back into a detectable "ordinary" electromagnetic field by two interfering "scalar EM waves"... even at a distance."

Whittaker accomplished this by demonstrating mathematically that,

"the field of force due to a gravitating body can be analyzed, by a spectrum analysis’ as it were, into an infinite number of constituent fields; and although the whole field of force does not vary with time, yet each of the constituent fields is an ondulatory character, consisting of a simple-disturbance propagated with uniform velocity ... [and] the waves will be longitudinal (top) ... These results assimilate the propagation of gravity to that of light ... [and] would require that gravity be propagated with a finite velocity, which however need not be the same as that of light [emphasis added], and may be enormously greater ..."

“Whittaker, a leading world-class physicist himself, single-handedly rediscovered the "missing" scalar components of Maxwell's original quaternions, extending their (at the time) unseen implications for finally uniting "gravity" with the more obvious electrical and magnetic components known as "light."

"In 1903-1904 E.T. Whittaker published a fundamental, engineerable theory of electrogravitation (EG) in two profound papers. The first (W-1903) demonstrated a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in the scalar potential of vacuum, and showed how to produce a standing scalar EM potential wave -- the same wave discovered experimentally four years earlier by Nikola Tesla.

W-1904 shows that all force field EM can be replaced by interferometry of two scalar potentials, anticipating the Aharonov-Bohm effect by 55 years and extending it to the engineerable macroscopic world. W-1903 shows how to turn EM into G-potential and directly engineer the virtual particle flux of ether. W-1904 shows how to turn G-potential back into force-field EM, even at a distance."

E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics," Math. Ann., Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355 (W-1903)

http://www.cheniere.org/misc/Whittak/ORIw1903.pdf

E.T. Whittaker, "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions," Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol.1, 1904, p. 367-372 (W-1904)

http://hemingway.softwarelivre.org/ttsoares/books_papers_patents/books%20papers%20patents%20(scientis/whittaker/whittaker%20et%20-%20on%20an%20expre.pdf

"In his 1903 paper Whittaker showed that a standing scalar potential wave can be decomposed into a special set of bidirectional EM waves that convolute into a standing scalar potential wave.

The very next year, Whittaker's second paper (cited above) showed how to turn such G potential wave energy back into EM energy, even at a distance, by scalar potential interferometry, anticipating and greatly expanding the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Indeed, Whittaker's second paper shows that the entire present force-field electromagnetics can be directly replaced with scalar potential interferometry. In other words, scalar EM includes and extends the present restricted vector subset of Maxwell's original theory.
 
Specifically, any EM force field can be replaced by two scalar potential fields and scalar interferometry. The combination of this paper and the 1903 Mathematische Annalen paper not only includes the Aharonov-Bohm effect, but specifies a testable method for producing a macroscopic and controlled Aharanov-Bohm effect, even at large distances."


The seminal Aharonov-Bohm paper:

https://journals.aps.org/pr/pdf/10.1103/PhysRev.115.485

"In 1959 two physicists, Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm, conducted a seminal "electrodynamics" laboratory experiment ("Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in Quantum Theory," The Physical Review, Vol. 115, No. 3, pp. 485-491; August, 1959). Aharonov and Bohm, almost 100 years after Maxwell first predicted their existence, succeeded in actually measuring the "hidden potential" of free space, lurking in Maxwell's original scalar quaternion equations. To do so, they had to cool the experiment to a mere 9 degrees above Absolute Zero, thus creating a total shielding around a superconducting magnetic ring [for a slightly different version of this same experiment; the oscillation of electrical resistance in the ring is due to the changing electron "wave functions" -- triggered by the "hidden Maxwell scalar potential" created by the shielded magnet].

Once having successfully accomplished this non-trivial laboratory set up, they promptly observed an "impossible" phenomenon:

Totally screened, by all measurements, from the magnetic influence of the ring itself, a test beam of electrons fired by Aharonov and Bohm at the superconducting "donut," nonetheless, changed their electronic state ("wave functions") as they passed through the observably "field-free" region of the hole -- indicating they were sensing "something," even though it could NOT be the ring's magnetic field. Confirmed now by decades of other physicists' experiments as a true phenomenon, this "Aharonov-Bohm Effect" provides compelling proof of a deeper "spatial strain" -- a "scalar potential" -- underlying the existence of a so-called magnetic "force-field" itself.”"

Subquark G force:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852870#msg1852870


The Tunguska explosion is an experimental proof of the existence of the Whittaker scalar potential waves.

« Last Edit: May 09, 2018, 02:41:48 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #451 on: December 11, 2017, 01:22:34 AM »
WHITTAKER SCALAR POTENTIAL WAVES II


The hidden structure of the electrogravitational potential is a set of bidirectional longitudinal waves.

These waves constitute/make up the electrogravitational potential.

The electrogravitational field is an effect caused by the em/g potential.

The bidirectional waves: time and anti-time, entropy and negentropy, normal thermodynamics and reverse thermodynamics, dextrorotatory strings and laevorotatory strings.

The time wave is the gravitational wave.

Tesla used only this hidden structure of the potential to transmit energy.

The original Maxwell equations expressed in quaternion form contained both the vector field and the scalar potential.


During the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, the Westinghouse exhibit set up by Tesla was visited by Hermann von Helmholtz, the first director of the Physico-Technical Institute of Berlin and one of the leading scientists of his time. When Tesla "asked the celebrated physicist for an expression of opinion on the feasibility of the [transmission] scheme. He stated unhesitatingly that it was practicable." In 1897, Lord Kelvin visited New York and stopped at the Tesla laboratory where Tesla "entertained him with demonstrations in support of my wireless theory."

Suddenly [Kelvin] remarked with evident astonishment: 'Then you are not making use of Hertz waves?'

'Certainly not', I replied, 'these are radiations.' ... I can never forget the magic change that came over the illustrious philosopher the moment he freed himself from that erroneous impression. The skeptic who would not believe was suddenly transformed into the warmest of supporters. He parted from me not only thoroly convinced of the scientific soundness of the idea but strongly exprest his confidence in its success."




"Whittaker 1904 showed that all EM fields and waves can be decomposed  into two scalar potential functions. It follows that, by assembling  two such scalar potential functions in beams, one can produce a  "scalar potential interferometer" where the potential beams intersect  at a distance. In that interference zone, ordinary transverse EM  fields and energy appear."

"Whittaker, a leading world-class physicist himself, single-handedly  rediscovered the "missing" scalar components of Maxwell's original  quaternions, extending their (at the time) unseen implications for  finally uniting "gravity" with the more obvious electrical and  magnetic components known as "light." In the first paper, Whittaker  theoretically explored the existence of a "hidden" set of  electromagnetic waves traveling in two simultaneous directions in the  scalar potential of the vacuum -- demonstrating how to use them to  curve the local and/or distant aether with electromagnetic  radiation. This key Whittaker paper thus lays the direct  mathematical foundation for an electrogravitic theory/technology of  gravity control. In the second paper, Whittaker demonstrated how two  "Maxwellian scalar potentials of the vacuum" -- gravitationally  curving aether -- could be turned back into a detectable "ordinary"  electromagnetic field by two interfering "scalar EM waves"... even at  a distance. "

"A "scalar" potential is a  bundle of bidirectional longitudinal waves, as shown by Whittaker in  his 1903 paper which stated that a standing scalar potential wave can  be decomposed into a special set of bidirectional EM waves that  convolute into a standing scalar potential wave. As a corollary, a set  of bidirectional EM waves, stress waves, can be constructed to form a standing scalar potential wave in space.  Since all potentials represent trapped energy density of vacuum, they  are gravitational in nature.

Because it represents a "standing wave"  whose magnitude represents the variation in the local energy density  of the vacuum, the Whittaker scalar potential wave represents a  standing wave of variation in the local curvature of vacuum, sharply  in contradiction to the assumptions of present electromagnetics and  general relativity. It also represents a standing wave of the  variation of the local gauge.

Turning G-Potential Back to EM
The very next year, Whittaker's second paper showed how to turn such  Gpotential  wave energy back into EM energy, even at a distance, by scalar  potential interferometry, anticipating and greatly expanding the  Aharonov-Bohm effect. Indeed, Whittaker's second paper shows that the  entire present force-field electromagnetics can be directly replaced  with scalar potential interferometry. In other words, scalar EM includes and extends the present restricted vector subset of Maxwell's  original theory.

In 1903-1904 E.T. Whittaker (W)  published a fundamental, engineerable theory of electrogravitation  (EG) in two profound papers. The first (W-1903) demonstrated a hidden  bidirectional EM wave structure in the scalar potential of vacuum, and  showed how to produce a standing scalar EM potential wave -- the same wave experimentally four years earlier by Nikola Tesla.  W-1903 is a hidden variable theory that shows how to deterministically  curve the local and/or distant aether using EM. W-1904 shows that all force field EM can be replaced by interferometry of two scalar  potentials, anticipating the Aharonov-Bohm effect by 55 years and  extending it to the engineerable macroscopic world. W-1903 shows how  to turn EM into G-potential, curve local and/or distant aether,  and directly engineer the virtual particle flux of vacuum. W-1904 shows how to turn G-potential and curvature of aether back into  force-field EM, even at a distance. The papers implement Sakharov's  1968 statement that gravitation is not a fundamental field of nature,  but a conglomerate of other fields. Separately applied to electromagnetics (EM), quantum mechanics (QM), and general relativity  (GR), an extended superset of each results. The three supersets are  Whittaker-unified, so that a testable, engineerable, unified field  theory is generated. EM, QM, and GR each contained a fundamental error  that blocked unification, and these three errors are explained. The  Schroedinger potential can also be structured and altered, indicating the direct engineering of physical quantum change. Recently Ignatovich  has pointed out this hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in the  Schroedinger potential, without referencing Whittaker's 1903 discovery  of the basic effect.

http://inspirehep.net/record/253823/files/JINR-E4-87-880.pdf

The following is an extremely simplified summary of what scalars are,  how they relate to Maxwell's equations, an explanation of how to unify  the three major disciplines of physics, specify what's wrong with the  three present versions of those disciplines that has prevented their  unification, and how this was in Maxwell's original quaternion equations (some 200 of which are actually his theory, not the pale  four vector equations written by Heaviside and Gibbs which misses the  boat with respect to structured scalars.

Physically a scalar thing is a thing that (1) is a  vector in time, which is hidden from direct observation, (2)  externally is just a magnitude spatially, and (3) has an internal spatial vector structure, and therefore a hyperspatial or virtual-  state vector structure. A vector is a thing in motion in a dimension  (through a frame), whether in space, hyperspace, or time. Rigorously  it is not possible to exclusively separate the notions of vector and  scalar, because any scalar, to persist, is automatically a vector in  time.

These concepts or vector and scalar are normally not nearly so well  clarified in standard physics and mathematics texts, unfortunately.

From a physics viewpoint, one of the big problems with the present  vector mathematics --  which is well-known not to be a complete system  of mathematics in the first place --  is that the presence of a bunch  of vectors that sum to zero is just treated as a zero or absence of  any vectors at all. That is, the absence of any internal vectors at  all is made synonymous to the presence of a bunch of internal vectors  that are fighting each other to a draw. What this does is throw away  the internal energy and internal ordered structuring of the medium --  specifically, the energy of all the vector fighters that is continually going on inside the local medium -- inside spacetime  itself. Physically that's quite wrong, and one is throwing away  exactly half the energy of the situation. There is a very real  physical difference between a system of real vectors that fight to a  draw and so do not translate en masse, and the absence of any vectors  and vector-fighting at all. The difference is composed of stress and  its internal vector patterns -- the internal energetic engines in  local spacetime and local rest mass -- in short, the energy trapped in the local medium.

The Aharonov-Bohm effect, where potentials alone can interfere, even  in the absence of EM force fields, and produce real force effects in  charged particle systems. That is, the sole agent of the interference  of scalar potentials can induce EM changes, according to the  experimentally proven Aharonov-Bohm effect, even in the total absence  of EM force fields.

Since 1959, it has been known in quantum mechanics that the EM force  fields are not primary agents at all. We know that classical EM theory  is completely wrong on this. QM shows that it's the potentials that  are primary, not the force fields. In fact, it can be shown that the E-  field and B- field do not exist as such in vacuum; only the potential for the E-field and the B-field exist in vacuum. Feynman pointed that  out, but nearly all of his modern cohorts seem not to have recognized  that fact. Indeed, vacuum is just a conglomerate of potentials,  nothing more, nothing less.

To sum this up another way: The present vector analysis (as applied to electromagnetics) discards the internal, trapped EM energy of local  aether. Now if the internal trapped energy of spacetime varies from  place to place, that is called a curved aether, relativistically  speaking. And when the aether is curved, there is communication of  energy between the internal, infolded, virtual EM energy state and the external, translating, observable EM energy state. Curved one way, the  local aether is a sink, with external energy pouring into it  continually, and disappearing from observation of the external state.  Curved the other way, the local aether is a source, with energy  pouring out of it continually, and appearing in observation in the  external state.

What the present vector system of EM does, therefore, is throw out the  ability to use the very strong EM force as an agent to curve local aether. The very mathematics itself, a priori, assumes and  guarantees a locally flat aether. And in an uncurved region of aether, for example, you are never going to make an over-unity  machine -- a so-called "free energy" machine that will give you more  energy out than you put in -- because the application of the vector  theory a priori guarantees the elimination of any hidden sources from  the local aether medium. If you're going to tap the trapped  vacuum energy, and make a so-called "free energy" device, you're going  to have to curve the local aether. That is the only way to produce  a local energy source in the vacuum, from which a current issues.  Notice that, when we put a paddlewheel in a river, we produce a free  energy device because we tap some of the energy in the flow. But we  tap a current, we do not just tap a potential per se. The entire  secret of tapping vacuum energy, to build a free energy device, is to  produce a current in the local vacuum potential that is self-  sustained, and then tap that current.

So the present EM theory throws away exactly half of the energetics of  the situation involved. From time to time yet another physicist  discovers that astonishing fact, and publishes a paper on it to point  it out. Nobody does anything about it, however, because no one has the  foggiest notion of what to do. So everybody just lets it pass and  nothing is changed.

Let us go into details and describe the physics of the Whittaker  internalized EM energy structure of the scalar potential. Fundamental  changes are made to two "untouchable" primary sciences: general  relativity and quantum mechanics. In so doing, one unites and extends  both of them into a common unified approach, and drastically enriches the present conception of the physical exchanges in, of, between,  among, and within physical systems. The foundations changes to general  relativity allow the incorporation of a hidden variable theory (the  Whittaker internalized EM energy structure of the potential).

In a scalar EM potential the EM energy communicates vertically, which  is harmonic translation of frequency energies, or time-wise. The time-wise two-wave EM energy communication represents a stress upon the  rate of flow of local observer time; hence it represents gravitational  stress. Further, the local rate of flow of time is determined by this  local time-stress of vacuum potential. One can easily engineer the  harmonic bidirectional wave structure of the vacuum potential When one  does so, then one also (1) curves local aether, (2)  deterministically structures that local curvature with selected hidden-variable EM engines, (3) changes the local rate of flow of time, (4) gravitationally affects local systems, and (5) dynamically structures that local gravitational change to affect different system structures at will."


« Last Edit: December 11, 2017, 01:30:52 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #452 on: December 11, 2017, 05:49:50 AM »
WHITTAKER SCALAR POTENTIAL WAVES III

"Whittaker figured out using partial differential equations what the waveform structure functions and dynamics of gravitational field effects are. And he demonstrated in his papers that gravitational field effect is a product of finer scale interactions. It has a waveform, it can be mitigated by the imposition of external forces, it is predictable and it operates according to certain rules."

"Whittaker’s decomposition of potentials and fields. In 1903 and 1904, E. T. Whittaker published two fundamental papers of interest to (i) the "infolding" of longitudinal wave (LW) electrodynamics inside the scalar potential, and also (ii) the expression of any EM field or wave as comprised of two potentials with appropriate differential functions applied.

For any EM field or wave: Suppose the two potentials are taken as scalar potentials (as advanced by Whittaker in 1904), and each of these two “basis potentials” is also first decomposed into longitudinal EM waves as shown by Whittaker in 1903, and then the appropriate differential functions are applied to each of the two decompositions, yielding the necessary EM field or wave pattern. Then all EM potentials, fields, and waves are shown (i) to be sets of ongoing EM energy flows in the form of longitudinal EM waves comprising the basis scalar potential(s), and (ii) to be comprised of internal longitudinal EM waves and strong internal structuring.

Scalar Interferometry: It follows that longitudinal EM wave interferometry (e.g., interfering the inner structures of two scalar potential beams in a distant interference zone in space), can create any known EM field or wave or pattern."

The hidden internal wave structures exist in all scalar potentials.

For example, Ziolkowski has pointed out what is actually Whittaker's 1903 infolded bidirectional planar waves inside the acoustic scalar wave, in work on acoustic missiles.

[See Richard Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave energy," Proc. SPIE Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p. 396-397. Ed.] A Soviet scientist, Ignatovich, has pointed out the same remarkable bidirectional wave structure inside the scalar potential associated with the Schroedinger wave equation itself. [See V.K. Ignatovich, "The remarkable capabilities of recursive relations," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 57, No. 10, Oct. 1989, p. 873-878. Ed.]

Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Exact Solutions of the Wave Equation With Complex Source Locations," Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 26, 1985, p. 861; "Localized Transmission of Wave Energy," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, 1989, p. 396-397; "Localized Transmission of Electromagnetic Energy," Physical Review A, Vol. 39, p. 2005; "Localized Wave Transmission Physics and Engineering," Physical Review A, 1992, (in Press); "Localized wave transmission physics and engineering," Proc. SPIE Conference on Intense Microwave and Particle Beams II, Los Angeles, CA, vol. 1407, Jan. 1991, p. 375-386. See Richard W.Ziolkowski, Amr M. Shaarawi, and Ioannis M. Besieris, Nuclear Physics B (Proc. Suppl.), Vol. 6, 1989, p. 255-258; R.W. Ziolkowski, and D.K. Lewis, D.K., "Verification of the Localized Wave Transmission Effect," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 68, 1990, p.6083; Richard W. Ziolkowski, Ioannis M. Besieris, and Amr M. Shaarawi, "Localized Wave Representations of Acoustics and Electromagnetic Radiation," Proceedings of the IEEE, 79(10), Oct. 1991, p. 1371-1378; I.M. Besieris, A.M. Shaarawi, and R.W. Ziolkowski, "A bidirectional travelling plane wave representation of exact solutions of the scalar wave equation," Journal of Mathematical Physics, 30(6), 1989, p. 806; A.M. Shaarawi, I.M. Besieris, and R.W. Ziolkowski, "A novel approach to the synthesis of nondispersive wave packet solutions to the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations," Journal of Mathematical Physics, 31(10), 1990, p. 2511; "A nondispersive wave packet representation of photons and the wave-particle duality of light," UCRL-101694, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 1989; "Diffraction of a classical wave packet in a two slit interference experiment," UCRL-100756, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 1989; "Localized energy pulse trains launched from an open, semi-infinite, circular waveguide," Journal of Applied Physics, 65(2), 1989, p. 805; R.W. Ziolkowski, D.K.Lewis and B.D.Cook, "Experimental verification of the localized wave transmission effect," Physical Review Letters, 62(2), 1989, p. 147; R.W. Ziolkowski and D.K. Lewis, "Verification of the localized wave transmission effect," Journal of Applied Physics, 68(12), 1990, p. 6083; M.K. Tippett and R.W. Ziolkowski, "A bidirectional wave transformation of the cold plasma equations," Journal of Mathematical Physics, 32(2) 1991, p. 488; A.M. Vengsarkar, I.M. Besieris, A.M. Shaarawi, and R.W. Ziolkowski, "Localized energy pulses in optical fiber waveguides: Closed-form approximate solutions," Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 1991.

https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/47018/1.528301.pdf?sequence=1

https://iri.columbia.edu/~tippett/pubs/Tippett1991.pdf

"Question So how about general relativity? How does it fit in?

A:  A similar thing also happened to general relativity, believe it or not! Einstein unwittingly restricted general relativity to a subset of the theory he intended to write. This over-restriction was again an indirect result of the fundamental Heaviside/Gibbs error in electromagnetics.

Unfortunately, Einstein's view of electromagnetics approximated the classical view. In classical EM theory, EM and gravitation were mutually exclusive. That is, the strong EM force was not usable as an agent to curve spacetime.

Therefore, as a curvature agent, Einstein only considered the weak gravitational force due to the attraction of mass. Now the G-force is far, far weaker than the E-force. For two electrons, for example, the attractive G-force between them is on the order of only 10exp-42 times as strong as the electrical repulsion. The G-force is very, very weak! If only the weak G-force is considered for curving spacetime, then there will never be an observable spacetime curvature, except in the immediate vicinity of a very large mass - such as on the surface of the sun or a star.

Einstein reasoned that the laboratory, and the observer/scientist and instrument, would never be on the surface of the sun or of a star. Therefore, he reasoned, the local spacetime -- where the lab, the observer, and the instruments are -- would never be curved. The local spacetime would always be flat.

Unfortunately, Einstein then made a fundamental error. He overgeneralized his thought examination. He stated one of his fundamental postulates of general relativity as "The local spacetime is always flat." This is overly restrictive, and did not follow from his thought process. His postulate can be more accurately stated as follows "The local spacetime is always flat, whenever only the weak gravitational force is used for the agent of curvature and the local region of interest is not near a large collection of mass."

Notice the difference in the two statements of the postulate. Einstein's overstatement does not allow the far stronger EM force to be used for curvature. In effect, his own overstatement excluded electromagnetics from curvature unity with gravitation, in his own general relativity theory. Ironically Einstein then tried for the rest of his life to fit electromagnetics back in there - never realizing that his own too-strenuous statement of the flat local spacetime postulate doomed all his efforts to failure.

On the other hand, the corrected statement of his postulate admits the following corollary "When a very strong force such as the electromagnetic force is used for the agent of curvature, the local spacetime may be curved, even though the local region of interest is not near a large collection of mass."

As can be seen, Einstein unwittingly wrote only a subset of his intended theory. Correct restatement of his overstated postulate of uncurved spacetime dramatically extends general relativity, and unites it with electromagnetics in a unified field theory."

"Whittaker showed that a scalar EM potential is comprised of bidirectional EM wave pairs, where the pairs are harmonics and phase-locked together. In each coupled wave/antiwave pair, a true forward-time EM wave is coupled to a time-reversal of itself -- its phase conjugate replica antiwave.

To understand scalar EM, as we said, you must understand that there are actually two kinds of electromagnetics. One is -- so to speak -- only on the external "surface magnitude' of the vacuum potential, and the other is in the interior of the vacuum potential. The exterior kind is spatial in nature; the interior kind is hyperspatial in nature.
The exterior kind of EM is caused or due to the potential magnitudes and their gradients, interacting with charged particles (forcefields); that's the "normal" kind. In that kind the theoretical EM model's focus is on the forcefields as causes, with the potentials themselves just regarded as mathematical conveniences. Certainly that "normal" EM does not contain any sort of organized EM structure inside, and composing, the scalar EM potential. It just models the scalar potential at a point as a magnitude, and the vector potential at a point as a magnitude and direction. Notice it thus models only local action; it does not model any sort of action at a distance. The EM action is considered -- and described in the classical EM model -- as existing at a point in space and time. Further, the local spacetime itself is considered not to have any direct causative EM interaction there. In other words, there are assumed to be no local vacuum engines -- no Whittaker activation of mass or the local vacuum.

There's also an internal EM, normally completely inside the scalar potential, which exists as "infolded" harmonic sets of EM antiparallel wave/antiwave pairs. Whittaker 1903 describes that kind of EM. This internal EM was in Maxwell's original quaternion equations, hidden in the scalar component resultant that remained when the directional components of quaternions interacted to form directional zero resultants. The scalar component resultant of the interaction often still remained, and infolded inside itself (i.e., it then consisted of) scalar and vector functions of the yet-present-and-interacting component vectors.

Today that part of Maxwell's original theory just appears in classical EM Heaviside/Gibbs theory as a vector zero resultant, which is erroneously discarded as if it were a complete absence of EM. It is no such thing; it is merely the absence of EM translation of charged particles. It indeed is a patterned EM-induced gravitational stress in local spacetime, and it is a little "vacuum engine" capable of working directly on the atomic nucleus. If you want to know what all the fuss about the difference between Maxwell's 200-odd quaternion equations EM theory and the Heaviside/Gibbs four vector equations curtailment/subset, just look at the difference between a zero vector result and a quaternion resultant, in an interaction where the vector resultant is zero but the scalar component of the quaternion resultant remains. Specifically, look mathematically at the internal functional nature of that remaining scalar resultant -- the part that's thrown away in the present theory.

Note that the internal EM is more than just a model of conditions at a point. In addition to that, it prescribes a hyperspatial, bidirectional flow of EM transverse wave energy at the point, into and out of it, into it from afar and away from it back to afar, on an infinite number of phase-locked frequencies. In other words, the internal EM energetically connects conditions at a point with essentially all the other points in the universe. And when we interfere two such scalar potentials, we are actually interfering both of those sets of an infinite number of bidirectional EM waves. (See Whittaker's second paper, 1904). It doesn't matter where the interference zone occurs; it can be a million miles away, or a light-year away. The interference accomplishes "outfolding," and creates "normal" or "exterior" EM effects. Specifically, it creates force fields and patterns of them -- both static and dynamic -- on charged particle systems. The internal EM thus prescribes and models action at a distance, and incorporates the "normal" exterior EM as a special case of local scalar interferometry. Whittaker rigorously proved this mathematically.

To first order, the G-potential is a function of the trapped local EM energy density of the vacuum (bidirectional longitudinal waves).

Not only is the mass potential a scalar EM potential, but it is also a gravitational potential. Note that the concept of the mass potential is a unifying field concept, for unifying gravity and EM fields.

The beauty of the mass potential concept is fourfold: (1) Now mass has a universal kind of organized EM internal structure, given by Whittaker's 1903 paper, that comprises the mass in the first place, (2) the hidden internal EM structure of the mass potential can be changed and engineered at will, electromagnetically, by external means and directly, (3) we now have direct electrogravitation, opening up the vista of directly engineering antigravity.







E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of mathematical
physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol 57, 1903, pages 333-355. 
 
  "In this paper Whittaker demonstrates that all scalar EM potentials have
  an internal, organized, bidirectional EM plane-wave structure. Thus
  there exists an electromagnetics that is totally internal to the scalar
  EM potential. Since vacuum/spacetime is scalar potential, then this
  internal EM is in fact "internal" to the local potentialized vacuum/
  aether."

E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to
electrons by means of two scalar potential functions," Proceedings of
the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, Vol 1, 1904, pages 367-372. 

  "In this paper Whittaker shows that all of classical electromagnetics 
  can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry. This paper
  anticipated the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect by 55 years, and drastically 
  extended it as well. Indeed, it prescribes a macroscopic AB effect that 
  is distance-independent, providing a direct and engineerable mechanism
  for action-at-a-distance. It also provides a testable hidden-variable
  theory that predicts drastically new and novel effects."

« Last Edit: May 09, 2018, 03:00:39 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #453 on: December 11, 2017, 10:11:44 AM »
WHITTAKER SCALAR POTENTIAL WAVES IV

"In his 1903 Mathematische Annalen paper, Whittaker demonstrates a standing, spatially-fixed wave of pure potential with an infolded, highly dynamic, hidden EM substructure containing hidden bidirectional pairs of EM waves/energy.

In each pair of infolded EM waves, the two coupled longitudinal waves flow in opposite directions inside the standing potential wave. Further, their speed is not limited to the normal speed of light in vacuum."

Scalar interferometry

"A most useful device is obtained if one uses a scalar inferometer where the two transmitters transmit beams which intersect at a distance. In the interference zone, an energy bottle is created.

By biasing the transmitter reference potentials well above that of the distant energy bottle, EM energy emerges in that zone, in that case the interferometer is operating in the Exothermic mode. By biasing the transmitter reference potentials well below that of the distant energy bottle, EM energy is extracted from the distant zone and emerges from the transmitter, in that case the inferometer is operating in the Endothermic mode.

If the transmitters transmit continuously, the effect in the distant zone is continuous.
 
If each transmitter transmits a pulse, and the two pulses meet in the distant intersection zone, then an explosive emergence or extraction of energy occurs at the distant interference zone, depending on whether the inferometer is operating in the exothermic or endothermic mode.

In the Exothermic mode, the ground potential of the transmitter is biased well above the ground potential of ambient vacuum, energy enters the transmitter and "disappears", to "reappear" in the distant interference zone.

If continuous wave transmission is used, the energy continuously appears in the distant zone.

If pulse transmission is used and timed so that the two scalar pulses meet in the distant zone, energy explosively appears there."

Tesla - Tunguska

http://www.tfcbooks.com/articles/tunguska.htm

http://www.teslasociety.com/pictures/wardenc.jpg (The Famous Tesla Tower erected in Shoreham, Long Island, New York was 187 feet high, the spherical top was 68 feet in diameter)

N. Tesla:

My apparatus projects particles which may be relatively large or of microscopic dimensions, enabling us to convey to a small area at a great distance trillions of times more energy than is possible with rays of any kind.  Many thousands of horsepower can thus be transmitted by a stream thinner than a hair, so that nothing can resist.  This wonderful feature will make it possible, among other things, to achieve undreamed-of results in television, for there will be almost no limit to the intensity of illumination, the size of the picture, or distance of projection.

Tesla said his transmitter could produce 100 million volts of pressure with currents up to 1000 amperes which is a power level of 100 billion watts.
 
If it was resonating at a radio frequency of 2 MHz, then the energy released during one period of its oscillation would be 100,000,000,000,000,000 (1016) Joules of energy, or roughly the amount of energy released by the explosion of 10 megatons of TNT.

Such a transmitter, would be capable of projecting the energy of a nuclear warhead by radio.

There are three N.Y. Times articles in which Tesla suggests the capacity of a Wardenclyffe-type plant to transmit a destructive impulse of electrical energy. Tesla's 1899 investigations in the area of wireless propagation in Colorado, which involved the transmission of an electric wave complex of two or more superimposed frequencies, at times led to the production of the ball lightning phenomenon.

New York Times, March 19, 1907

TESLA'S WIRELESS TORPEDO
Inventor Says He Did Show That It Worked Perfectly

As to projecting wave-energy to any particular region of the globe, I have given a clear description of the means in technical publications. Not only can this be done by the means of my devices, but the spot at which the desired effect is to be produced can be calculated very closely, assuming the accepted terrestrial measurements to be correct.

NIKOLA TESLA
New York, March 19, 1907


The Electrical Engineer - London
Dec. 24, 1909, p. 893

NIKOLA TESLA`S NEW WIRELESS

Mr. Nikola Tesla has announced that as the result of experiments conducted at Shoreham, Long Island, he has perfected a new system of wireless telegraphy and telephony in which the principles of transmission are the direct opposite of Hertzian wave transmission.  In the latter, he says, the transmission is effected by rays akin to light, which pass through the air and cannot be transmitted through the ground, while in the former the Hertz waves are practically suppressed and the entire energy of the current is transmitted through the ground exactly as though a big wire.  Mr. Tesla adds that in his experiments in Colorado it was shown that a very powerful current developed by the transmitter traversed the entire surface of the Earth and returned to its origin in an interval of 84 one-thousandths of a second, this journey of 24,000 miles being effected almost without loss of energy.

New York Times, Dec. 8, 1915, p. 8, col. 3

TESLA'S NEW DEVICE LIKE BOLTS OF THOR

"It is perfectly practicable to transmit electrical energy without wires and produce destructive effects at a distance. I have already constructed a wireless transmitter which makes this possible, and have described it in my technical publications, among which I may refer to my patent 1,119,732 recently granted. With transmitters of this kind we are enabled to project electrical energy in any amount to any distance and apply it for innumerable purposes, both in peace and war. Through the universal adoption of this system, ideal conditions for the maintenance of law and order will be realized, for then the energy necessary to the enforcement of right and justice will be normally productive, yet potential, and in any moment available, for attack and defense. The power transmitted need not be necessarily destructive, for, if existence is made to depend upon it, its withdrawal or supply will bring about the same results as those now accomplished by force of arms."

NIKOLA TESLA



"In the pulse mode, a single intense scalar pulse form is fired, using two truncated Fourier transforms, each involving several frequencies, to provide the proper 3-dimensional shape. This is why two scalar antennas separated by a baseline are required. After a time delay calculated for the particular target, a second and faster pulse form of the same shape is fired from the interferometer antennas. The second pulse overtakes the first, catching it over the target zone and pair-coupling with it to instantly form a violent EMP of ordinary vector (Hertzian) electromagnetic energy."

To activate the Wardenclyffe tower, Tesla used the power derived from his ball lightning objects in the lab (a single ball lightning sphere, 3 cm in diameter, provides 1 MW).

Alternatively, an array of Moray generators could be used.

Tesla also used remote viewing.

"Nikola Tesla planned a very special use for his endothermic scalar interferometer, he planned to produce what he called his "big eye to see at a distance."

The system used to accomplish this is only weakly endothermic, so that only a small amount of energy is extracted from the distant target, also, the beams are "scanned" by an open receiver, timewise, from side to side and top to bottom.

By scanning yet another single beam through the intersection zone and phasing its pulses, an even better representation can be obtained, thus the receiver produces a representation of the energy extracted from various locations within the distant endothermic zone, by displaying the received signals on an appropriately scanned screen, a representation of the distant scene can be created. This is a special kind of "microwave interferometry," and - with modern techniques - the imagery obtained can be surprisingly good.

With development, it might even become as good as the image presently obtained by side looking acquisition radars."

Ball lightning is due to scalar electromagnetic interferometry which can produce a controlled pattern of electromagnetic energy at a distance.

The energy sphere created by the Whittaker scalar waves will attract the telluric currents (longitudinal subquark waves) which will be diverted from their usual path to eventually form a self-sustaining oscillation in the form of a ball lightning object.


« Last Edit: December 11, 2017, 10:15:30 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #454 on: December 12, 2017, 01:22:33 AM »
TUNGUSKA JUNE 30, 1908: WHITTAKER SCALAR POTENTIAL WAVES V

The definitive work on the subject is The Tunguska Mystery by Vladimir Rubtsov (more than 30 years spent as a researcher on the matter). The book includes each and every important aspect of the Tunguska event, from the geochemical analysis to the exact shape of the map of the region which reveals the geometry of the shock wave of the explosion.

It proves, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that there were TWO BALL LIGHTNING OBJECTS flying over the Tunguska region on June 30, 1908 (7:00 a.m. - 7:13 a.m.), coming from two different directions: south to north, and east to north-west. Their collision caused the huge explosion at the epicenter. Also it demonstrates that no comet, meteorite (stone/iron/magnetic) could have caused the explosion.

Initially, the research done by Dr. Felix Zigel revealed that, given the eyewitness reports coming from both the southern and the eastern regions, the ball lighting sphere must have changed course abruptly over a distance of 600 km.

LeMaire maintains the "accident-explanation is untenable" because "the flaming object was being expertly navigated" using Lake Baikal as a reference point. Indeed, Lake Baikal is an ideal aerial navigation reference point being 400 miles long and about 35 miles wide. LeMaire's description of the course of the Tunguska object lends credence to the thought of expert navigation:

The body approached from the south, but when about 140 miles from the explosion point, while over Kezhma, it abruptly changed course to the east. Two hundred and fifty miles later, while above Preobrazhenka, it reversed its heading toward the west. It exploded above the taiga at 60º55' N, 101º57' E (LeMaire 1980).

The fight path of the cosmic object, as reconstructed from eyewitness testimony and ballistic wave evidence. Felix Zigel and other space experts agree that, prior to exploding, the object changed from an eastward to a westward direction over the Stony Tunguska region. The arc at the bottom of the map indicates the scope of the area where witnesses either saw the fiery object or heard the blast.


The information acquired by the Florensky and Zolotov expeditions about the ballistic shock effect on the trees provides a strong basis, in some scientists' view, for a reconstruction of an alteration in the object's line of flight. In the terminal phase of its descent, according to the most recent speculations, the object appears to have approached on an eastward course, then changed course westward over the region before exploding. The ballistic wave evidence, in fact, indicates that some type of flight correction was performed in the atmosphere.


The same opinion was reached by Felix Zigel, who as an aerodynamics professor at the Moscow Institute of Aviation has been involved in the training of many Soviet cosmonauts. His latest study of all the eyewitness and physical data convinced him that "before the blast the Tunguska body described in the atmosphere a tremendous arc of about 375 miles in extent (in azimuth)" - that is, it "carried out a maneuver." No natural object is capable of such a feat.



Two spheres travelling eastward, then abruptly changing course heading to the west to the epicenter.


http://www.qconference-athens-2011.grazian-archive.com/aspacekeytotheri/rubtsov-paperx.pdf (a 20 page summary of the Tunguksa Mystery book)



The Tunguska trees have been leveled over a butterfly-like area 70 km across and 55 km long. Over this area, the trees were found lying mainly in a radial direction. However, there are in the leveled forest two bands of leveled trees that form feeble but noticeable herring-bone patterns. One of them is running from the east-south-east to the west-north-west; the second nearly from east to west (lines AB and CD). These appear to be imprints of bow waves of two bodies that flew over the taiga in these directions.

The idea of two “Tunguska meteorites” is also confirmed by reports of eyewitnesses. The total number of eyewitness testimonies is about 700 (Vasilyev et al., 1981). The Tunguska space body was seen at a distance of up to 1000 kilometers from the place of its explosion. There are, however, two main areas of eyewitness reports.



First this is the southern sector where the Tunguska space body had been seen by inhabitants of settlements situated on the banks of the Angara river, and second the eastern sector (the upper reaches of the Lower Tunguska and Lena rivers). Data obtained inside each sector made it possible to create a statistically  reliable and coherent image of the Tunguska phenomenon, but these two images are different. In the south the phenomenon (including thunder-like sounds) lasted half an hour and more. The brightness of this Tunguska space body (let’s call it “southern”) was comparable to the Sun. The body looked white or bluish. It had a short tail of the same color. After its flight there remained in the sky iridescent bands resembling a rainbow and stretching along the path of the body’s motion. And it flew south to north.

In the east the brightness of the “eastern” Tunguska space body was much lower than the Sun. Its color was red, and the shape was that of a ball or “artillery shell” with a long tail. Usually eyewitnesses said simply: a “red sheaf” was flying. It was swiftly moving in the western direction, leaving no trace behind. The duration of this phenomenon did not exceed a few minutes.

Both space bodies did maneuver.

At a distance from the Southern swamp the “southern” body flew approximately south to north, but it approached the swamp from the east-southeast. Judging from that, it must have turned to the left for about 70 degrees shortly before the explosion.



As for the “eastern” object, it also maneuvered at a considerable distance from the Southern swamp. Materials collected in the eastern sector appear to testify that. There are five “eastern” reports in which eyewitnesses describe how the flying body changed its direction of flight. Here for example is the testimony of Vladimir Penigin who was born in 1893 and saw personally the Tunguska space body. His point of observation was on the right bank of the Lena river (some 500 kilometers from the epicenter to the east-south-east).

He describes: “Then I was a boy and helped to bring manure to the fields. We were upstream from the village. The fiery flying body was well seen. It resembled an airplane without wings, or a flying sheaf. It was as long as an airplane and flew as high, but more swiftly. The body was as red as fire or a tomato. It was flying horizontally, not descending, and passed in front of the cliff of Tsimbaly, at about two thirds of its height. Then the body covered some two kilometers more and made a sharp turn to the right, at a very acute angle”.
(Vasilyev et al., 1981)


Victor Konenkin discovered that the flying Tunguska space body had been seen not only to the south from the Great Hollow, but to the east as well, up to 500 km from the site.

Konenkin was born and grew up in the village of Preobrazhenka, on the riverside of the Nizhnyaya (Lower) Tunguska River, where in the long winter evenings he heard so often the tales of his older neighbors about the striking event of half a century before. In 1962, the teacher decided to find out what the enigmatic flying object had looked like and how it had flown. He traveled to dozens of villages on the Lower Tunguska and its tributaries, interrogating the surviving eyewitnesses. If the eyewitnesses still lived at the same settlement where they had seen the TSB, Konenkin asked them to come to the place of their observation. They took with them a compass and an angle gauge. The eyewitnesses showed Konenkin at which point in the heavenly sphere they had noticed the fiery body for the first time and where it had disappeared.

Konenkin’s investigations enabled him to determine where the TSB had traversed the Lower Tunguska River. The task was accomplished very simply. This part of the river flows almost strictly from south to north, so that eyewitnesses located upstream (farther south) from the place where the TSB was traversing the river saw it flying from right to left, while those downstream (farther north from the intersection) saw the TSB flying from left to right. After processing the data collected, it turned out that the TSB had flown over the river near the village of Konenkin’s Preobrazhenka. And its inhabitants did confirm this, saying that the fiery object had flown directly over their village in 1908.

So a simple method obtained a result that must be correct. But there appears a problem: the village Preobrazhenka is situated at a distance of 350 km from the Tunguska epicenter and almost directly to the east. Most previous eyewitness reports were gathered to the south of the epicenter – up to a distance of about 1,000 km. How, then, could the TSB have approached the Great Hollow simultaneously from the east and also from the south?

The information collected by Victor Konenkin was so startling that it needed verification. Several expeditions – sent by KMET, ITEG, and AAGS – left for the Lower Tunguska, and they confirmed that Konenkin’s data were correct. They also gathered additional eyewitness reports themselves. To the 35 accounts collected by Konenkin, another 150 were added.




The most reliable traces of the Tunguska phenomenon are material ones – the area of leveled forest, first of all. And we know that the second Fast’s TSB trajectory, determined from the axis of symmetry of this area, does run from the east to the west. Also in the same direction runs the TSB trajectory determined from the axes of symmetry of the zones of light burn and the thermoluminescent anomaly. These facts do demonstrate that over the Great Hollow the TSB was flying from the east to the west. Consequently, it is the eastern set of eyewitness testimonies that definitely has direct relation to the Tunguska phenomenon.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1677590#msg1677590 (Tunguska ball lightning theory)


The complete demonstration that TWO BALL LIGHTNING SPHERES coming from two different directions, not only maneuvered over the region (no natural object would be capable of such a feat), but also caused the Tunguska event explosion.

This is a very large scale interferometer based exactly on the Whittaker scalar wave theory, and as we have seen in the previous message, it was caused by Nikola Tesla operating the trajectories of the two spheres from the Wardenclyffe tower.



« Last Edit: May 09, 2018, 03:25:28 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #455 on: December 12, 2017, 10:20:09 PM »
TUNGUSKA JUNE 30, 1908 II

The most important discovery concerning the powerful high-altitude explosion at Tunguska was the chemical analysis of the soil and peats of the region.



http://www.qconference-athens-2011.grazian-archive.com/aspacekeytotheri/rubtsov-paperx.pdf

A very systematic search for chemical anomalies in Tunguska soils and peats has been made by specialists of the Independent Tunguska Exploration Group. They have found an increased concentration of some rare earths (lanthanum, ytterbium, cerium and yttrium). Soon it turned out that the samples enriched by rare earths are found only around the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion and in the north-western direction from it. This chemical anomaly was spread through soils, plants and peat, having a peak in the peat stratum dated 1908.

It was found that the pattern of ytterbium’s distribution at Tunguska follows the projection of the “southern” TSB’s path on the ground. Similar shapes have been formed at Tunguska for the surface distribution of lanthanum, lead, silver and manganese (Zhuravlev & Demin, 1976). Only these five elements have patterns of distribution in Tunguska soils and peats that follow the projection of the TSB path on the ground, and only ytterbium follows this path strongly enough to be considered as the most likely main ingredient of the TSB substance.

This is an amazing outcome, one should note. This soft silvery-white rareearth metal, discovered in 1878, is now used mainly for improving the hardness of stainless steel, as well as in making high-power lasers. Definitely, if the chief chemical component of the TSB was ytterbium it hardly could have been a natural space body.

In the 1990s, Dr. Sergey Dozmorov, a specialist in the chemistry of rare earths, who ran a chemical laboratory at a research institute in the Siberian city of Omsk, became interested in this enigma. He tested samples of soil, taken at Tunguska, looking for all lanthanides, not only of lanthanum, cerium and ytterbium. Dozmorov discovered that apart from ytterbium these samples were enriched by thulium, europium and terbium as well. And their ratio had been sharply disrupted. The contents of terbium exceeded the norm by 55 times, that of thulium by 130 times, that of europium by 150 times, and that of ytterbium by 800 times. Such things never happen in nature – only in special alloys. Even being a cautious scientist, and not a sensation-seeking journalist, Sergey Dozmorov had to conclude that:

“Together with the known data on the above-average barium content in the area of the Tunguska explosion, the results obtained may mean that there were in the Tunguska space body some systems that contained a superconducting high-temperature ceramic made on the basis of a combination of barium – a lanthanide – and copper. Such a ceramic keeps superconductivity up to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (that is, minus 196 degrees Celsius) and can be used for constructing effective energy and information storage devices. Obviously, such a substance cannot be natural”. (Dozmorov, 1999)

Now, due to Dozmorov’s discovery, we can say with a good degree of certitude that the bodies that flew over Tunguska in June 1908 could be artificial. And very likely, extraterrestrial. They flew, maneuvering, towards one point from different directions; one of them exploded due to its internal energy, the explosion being accompanied by hard radiation, and its substance contained a superconducting ceramic.





Note that the Tunguska radioactivity was studied not by amateurs, but by the most distinguished Russian radiochemists, in particular by Academician Boris Kurchatov, the father of Soviet radiochemistry, and his close associate Dr. Vladimir Mekhedov.


Transmutation of chemical elements using ball lightning:

http://www.q-mag.org/short-abstracts-of-17th-conference-on-cold-nuclear-transmutation-of-chemical-elements-and-ball-lightning-in-sochi-russia-sept-26.html

https://blog.synthestech.com/russian-conference-on-cold-nuclear-transmutation-and-ball-lightning-ended-c5ca6c886b7f

http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/LewisEtheballlig.pdf

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4912/1abc2f1ef763dde1d3f5f7173d44ec990126.pdf

http://www.condensed-plasmoids.com/history.html


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1676400#msg1676400 (Tunguska event, six consecutive messages)

If the light from the Sun could not reach London due to curvature and/or any light reflection phenomena, then certainly NO LIGHT from an explosion which occurred at some 7 km altitude in the atmosphere could have been seen at all, at the same time, on a spherical earth.

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:28:08 AM by sandokhan »

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #456 on: December 13, 2017, 04:31:23 AM »
DARK FLOW III

http://www.kashlinsky.info/anima/skash.nsf/prepro?OpenForm&ParentUNID=20A8A87B7FB62FCE882578CB000C8703

Dark flow was described in very clear terms by the group of people who forged the works attributed to Isaac Newton:

Newton still thought that the planets and Sun were kept apart by 'some secret principle of unsociableness in the ethers of their vortices,' and that gravity was due to a circulating ether.

Isaac Newton speculated that gravity was caused by a flow of ether, or space, into celestial bodies. He discussed this theory in letters to Oldenburg, Halley, and Boyle.

Large overall dark flow on scales hundreds of million of light years in size! Our Universe from this perspective is a dark flow.

"Aether is physically displaced by matter.

The galaxy clusters in the following article are not traveling with  dark matter. The galaxy clusters are moving through the aether. The  galaxy clusters displace the aether.

'Hubble Finds Ghostly Ring of Dark Matter'
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/news/dark_matter_ring_feature.html

"Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope got a first-hand view  of how dark matter behaves during a titanic collision between two  galaxy clusters. The wreck created a ripple of dark mater, which is  somewhat similar to a ripple formed in a pond when a rock hits the  water."

The 'pond' consists of aether. The moving 'particles' are the galaxy  clusters. The 'ripple' is a gravitational wave. The 'ripple' is an  aether displacement wave.

The above is physical evidence of a moving 'particle' having an  associated aether displacement wave.

'Interpretation of quantum mechanics by the double solution theory -
Louis de BROGLIE'

http://aflb.ensmp.fr/AFLB-classiques/aflb124p001.pdf

"any particle, even isolated, has to be imagined as in continuous  “energetic contact” with a hidden medium"

The hidden medium is the aether. The "energetic contact" is the state  of displacement of the aether."

Louis de Broglie:

To answer this question, any particle, even isolated, has to be imagined as in continuous “energetic contact” with a hidden medium, which constitutes a concealed thermostat. This hypothesis was brought forward some fifteen years ago by Bohm and Vigier, who named this invisible thermostat the “subquantum medium”.

The "hidden medium" is nothing more than Whittaker's hidden structure of plane longitudinal waves:

"In his 1903 Mathematische Annalen paper, Whittaker demonstrates a standing, spatially-fixed wave of pure potential with an infolded, highly dynamic, hidden EM substructure containing hidden bidirectional pairs of EM waves/energy.

In each pair of infolded EM waves, the two coupled longitudinal waves flow in opposite directions inside the standing potential wave. Further, their speed is not limited to the normal speed of light in vacuum."


'Dark Halo Around Our Galaxy Looks Like Squished Beach Ball'
http://www.space.com/7746-dark-halo-galaxy-squished-beach-ball.html

"Dark matter seems to shroud the remaining visible matter in giant  spheres called haloes."

The Milky Way's halo is displaced aether.

"But the new study found that the Milky Way's halo isn't exactly  spherical, but squished. In fact, its beach-ball form is flattened in  a surprising direction perpendicular to the galaxy's visible, pancake-shaped spiral disk."

All of the aether displaced by the Milky Way matter pushes back toward  the Milky Way. The pressure exerted toward the matter by the aether  displaced perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy's spiral disk offset. It is the aether which is displaced outward relative to the  plane of the spiral disk which pushes back and exerts inward pressure toward the center of the galaxy. This forces the matter closer  together which results in the displaced aether looking like a squished  beach ball.

Matter does not move with dark matter. Matter moves through and  displaces the aether.

'Offset between dark matter and ordinary matter: evidence from a  sample of 38 lensing clusters of galaxies'
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16739.x/abstract

"We compile a sample of 38 galaxy clusters which have both X-ray and  strong lensing observations, and study for each cluster the projected  offset between the dominant component of baryonic matter centre  (measured by X-rays) and the gravitational centre (measured by strong  lensing). Among the total sample, 45 per cent clusters have offsets [greater than] 10 arcsec. The [greater than] 10 arcsec separations are  significant, considering the arcsecond precision in the measurement of  the lensing/X-ray centres. This suggests that it might be a common  phenomenon in unrelaxed galaxy clusters that gravitational field is  separated spatially from the dominant component of baryonic matter. It  also has consequences for lensing models of unrelaxed clusters since  the gas mass distribution may differ from the dark matter distribution  and give perturbations to the modelling. Such offsets can be used as a  statistical tool for comparison with the results of Lambda cold dark  matter ( CDM) simulations and to test the modified dynamics."

The offset is due to the galaxy clusters moving through the aether."

"The clusters of galaxies are headed along the dark flow path because the Universe is, or
the local Universe we exist in is in, a jet.

Dark flow is the aether emitted into the Universal jet. Dark energy is  the change in state of the aether emitted into the Universal jet."

Dark flow = Dark energy = Dark matter = Aether/Ether flow

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1964696#msg1964696 (Dark Flow II)


Now, the concepts of dark flow, dark energy, dark matter and Whittaker's scalar waves have to be linked together into a single theory which would explain the astrophysics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.


« Last Edit: December 13, 2017, 04:45:12 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #457 on: December 13, 2017, 09:45:19 AM »
BIRKELAND CURRENTS: WHITTAKER SCALAR POTENTIAL WAVES VI



"Plasma in space usually appears as a cloud of partially charged gas and dust.
 
When clouds are in motion they become ionized. Clouds in relative motion induce electric currents within them. The currents generate magnetic fields that confine the plasma into coherent filaments known as Birkeland currents.
 
The charged particles in the currents spiral along the resulting magnetic fields, appearing as electrical vortices. The forces between these spinning Birkeland currents pull them close together and wind them around each other into “plasma ropes”.

Birkeland currents squeeze galactic plasma into thin filaments that remain collimated over great distances.
 
Light-years-long jets and so-called “radio lobes” can extend for many times a galaxy’s diameter, for example. A circuit is induced within any one galaxy that causes diffuse electric charge to flow from the galactic poles toward the galaxy’s equatorial plane and spiral into its nucleus.

The forces exerted by electrified plasma contained in the twisting filaments of Birkeland currents dominate the Universe. They circulate in a cosmic circuit that flows into our field of view and then out into the void with electromagnetic attraction between them that is billions of times more intense than gravity."

Electric Plasma Universe

The new Plasma cosmology is based largely on electromagnetic forces - up to 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity - and has no need for dark matter or dark energy.

Plasma is a conglomerate of charged particles that respond collectively to electromagnetic forces. It is considered a fourth state of matter distinct from solid, liquid, and gas. Plasmas can be created and studied in the laboratory, and their properties can be scaled up over many orders of magnitude.

Swedish plasma physicist Hannes Alfvén (1908-1995), awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the dynamic behaviour of electrically conducting fluids including plasmas, was a pioneer proponent of the Electric Plasma Universe. He was the first to point out that X-rays and γ-rays detected by the special telescopes orbiting in space are produced by magnetized plasmas.

Field-aligned Birkeland currents create strings of galaxies

Along the boundaries between cells, filaments and sheets of plasma organize into Birkeland currents, named after Norwegian researcher Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), who deduced that the flow of electrons from the sun was the source of the Northern lights at the beginning of the 20th century. Magnetic field aligned electric (Birkeland) currents were discovered in Earth’s magnetosphere in 1974; and auroras are now attributed to the filamentation of charged plasma sheets following Earth’s magnetic field lines into vortex current bundles. Birkeland currents exist also on the galactic and supergalactic scales, and are very effective at aggregating matter.

Birkeland current and accretion of matter

A Birkeland current is an electric current aligned with a magnetic field. Any current flowing in a conductor or filament will induce a magnetic field B around it. The lines of equal magnetic flux density will be in the form of rings around the current axis, with magnetic flux density decreasing away from the axis. The interaction of the current with its own magnetic field will cause a pressure to develop radially inward on the current filament according to the vector product of current I and magnetic field B written as (I x B). This is referred to as a Z-pinch.

Birkeland currents interact to form systems of galaxies, according to Anthony Peratt, plasma physicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory New Mexico in the United States, and a leading proponent of the Electric/Plasma Universe. Birkeland currents in astrophysical plasmas with dimensions ranging from 102 to nearly 1021 m are thought to carry currents of 105 to 1019 A (amperes). The entire filamentous circuit is expected to be hundreds of megaparsec long with complex patterns of fields and currents. (A parsec is an astronomical unit equal to 3.26 light-years or 3.08567758 x 1016 m, so a Mpc (megaparsec) is 3.26 million light years.)

Galaxies form along the filaments, and this explains the chains of galaxies that seem to be linked like pearls on a string. Large masses of galaxies also formed along the original plasma cell boundaries, accounting for the “Great Walls” and the grand sheets of galaxies that have been observed.

“The two Birkeland filaments (also concentrating matter within their magnetically pinched volume) torque around each other, changing the morphology of the core plasma (flattening the ellipse) and eventually evolving into trailing arms as electric current, axial to the arms, flows into the core of the galaxy. At that point the two Birkeland filaments merge with the core. So the core of a galaxy derives from whatever intergalactic plasma was trapped between the two (or more) Birkeland filaments and the arms of the spiral derive mostly from the pinched Birkeland filaments themselves.

“The rotating Birkeland filaments impart the initial rotational momentum to the galaxy-sized plasma structure. As the charged plasma structure rotates, there arises a concomitant magnetic field with a typical “dynamo” signature.

“Current continues to run through the galaxy along the equatorial plane as part of a larger intergalactic circuit. This current as it passes through the magnetic field mentioned above drives further rotational energy as the galaxy responds as a homopolar motor. This is what drives the “anomalous” rotational velocities observed in the outer parts of galaxies.

“Further magnetic fields arise in the galaxy as a result of the intergalactic currents running in along the equatorial plane. The currents running radially along the equatorial plane create local magnetic fields that squeeze the plasma into Birkeland filaments. This brings definition to the spiral arms. Further filamentation and higher current densities power star formation in the spiral arms.”

http://www.dharmacafe.com/new-science/continuous-creation-from-electric-plasma-versus-big-bang-universe/


http://plasmauniverse.info/papers.html (Plasma cosmology, papers published by Dr. A.L. Peratt)


The fallacies of the emergent gravity hypothesis:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.09582.pdf

The errors inherent in the MOND hypothesis (Modified Newtonian Dynamics):

http://immanuelvelikovsky.com/NewtonEinstein&Veli.pdf (pg. 243, 250-253)


Ampere's force law is a subquark vortex theory exemplified visually in the classic work Spintronics:

SPINTRONICS, secret world of magnets, the most thorough work on the double helix theory of the magnetic field (double helix of the telluric currents):

https://freeenergycommunity.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/the-secret-world-of-magnets-spintronics-2006-howard-johnson.pdf

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg759332#msg759332 (magnetricity: ether magnetism)

Ampere's ideas on ether theory:

https://www.princeton.edu/ssp/joseph-henry-project/galvanometer/explaining-the-phenomenon/amperes-theory/


The cosmic microwave background radiation consists of Birkeland currents.

"For instance, you might want to take a closer look at what all-sky surveys tell us about the interstellar plasma structures we can observe at the 21-cm wavelength (oftentimes called HI). Gerrit Verschuur has published extensively on this subject in his books "Interstellar Matters" and "The Invisible Universe", as well as numerous peer-reviewed publications. And he is quite clear that the structure of this plasma is in fact filamentary, as would be expected for a plasma conducting electrical currents ...

"Preliminary results from high resolution HI mapping of gas and, dust in an apparent HI "cloud" indicate that the neutral gas and dust within and around its boundary is itself highly filamentary" (Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Filaments at High Galactic Lattitudes and the Bennett Pinch)

Furthermore, Verschuur has observed critical ionization velocities (CIVs) to be associated with these interstellar filaments. When a neutral gas (so thin that collisional interactions can be ignored) meets a plasma such that the kinetic energy of their relative velocity is equal to the ionization potential of the neutral gas, then the kinetic energy is converted into ionization of the neutral gas. This was incidentally suggested by Alfvén in 1942 and later discovered in the lab in the 1970’s.

Verschuur furthermore states in Galactic Neutral Hydrogen Emission Profile Structure:

"Analysis of Galactic neutral hydrogen emission profiles that have been corrected for sidelobe radiation confirm the existence of three distinct component line width regimes identified by Verschuur & Magnani in 1994. In addition, a fourth becomes recognizable in the data in directions of low total column density. The line width regimes are around 50 km s~1 (component 1a), 31 km s~1 (component 1b), 13 km s~1 (component 2), and 5.2 km s~1 for the narrow lines arising from cool H I (component 3). In this paper, the new data are presented and compared with previously published results. The possible origin of the distinct line width regimes is briefly examined, and it is concluded that a new interpretation is needed, one that involves a plasma phenomenon known as the critical ionization velocity, which will be fully discussed in a subsequent paper."

In another paper, On the Critical Ionization Velocity Effect in Interstellar Space and Possible Detection of Related Continuum Emission, he states:

"Interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) emission spectra manifest several families of linewidths whose numerical values (34, 13, and 6 km/s) appear to be related to the critical ionization velocities (CIVs) of the most abundant interstellar atomic species. Extended new analysis of HI emission profiles shows that the 34-km/s-wide component, which probably corresponds to the CIV for helium, is pervasive. The 34-km/s-wide linewidth family is found in low-velocity (local) HI profiles and in the so-called high-velocity clouds (HVCs). In addition, published studies of HI linewidths found in the Magellanic Stream, Very High Velocity Clouds, and Compact HVCs, all of which are believed to be intergalactic, have noted that the typical values are of the same
order. If the CIV effect does play a role in interstellar space, it may be expected to produce locally enhanced electron densities where rapidly moving neutral gas masses interact with the surrounding plasma. Evidence that suggests that this phenomenon is occurring in interstellar space is presented. It manifests as a spatial association between peaks in HI structure offset with respect to peaks in high-frequency radio continuum data obtained with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe."

In his book, The Invisible Universe, he provides some background on HI and the widespread presence of these filaments:

"The neutral hydrogen atom consists of a proton with an electron in an orbit about it. Both the proton and the electron have a property called spin, which can be in the same direction (called parallel spin) or in opposite directions (antiparallel) relative to one another. The total energy contained by the atom in these two conditions is different. When the spin state flips from the parallel condition to the antiparallel, which contains less energy, the atom gets rid of the excess energy by radiating a spectral line at a frequency of 1420.405 MHz, generally known as the 21-cm line referring to its wavelength in the radio band. The 21-cm line is the signature of HI and makes the gas observable to astronomers on earth." (The Invisible Universe: The Story of Radio Astronomy, Gerrit L. Verschuur, p52)

"It wasn't until some 50 years after the detection of the HI signal that a comprehensive all-sky survey of the HI spectral line was completed under the guidance of W. Butler Burton at the University of Leiden … The completed project is known as the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn (LAB) survey. To give the reader some feel for the enormous scope of this project, the LAB Survey observed 400,000 directions and obtained a spectrum with 1,000 frequency channels at each location … Figure 6.1 is an all-sky HI map made from the LAB Survey data where the color is a measure of the total number of hydrogen atoms along the full line-of-sight through the Galaxy in any given direction … An intriguing feature of this map is the presence of arcs or filaments (long streamers) visible as great threads of emission, whose shapes are almost certainly controlled by magnetic fields between the stars." (The Invisible Universe: The Story of Radio Astronomy, Gerrit L. Verschuur, p52-53)

In that same source, he also explains the predicament of the "anomalous high-velocity clouds" ...

"Not all is understood about the distribution of HI in the Milky Way. For example, large areas of sky are found to contain HI [hydrogen] moving at velocities that are not expected if the gas is confined to the plane of the Galaxy. In particular, when a radio telescope is pointed above or below the galactic plane, only relatively local gas traveling at velocities between +-20 km/s with respect to zero, defined in terms of the average random motion of stars near the sun, should be observed. However, HI at very high negative velocities, which indicates motion toward us, is found at high galactic latitudes. These structures are known as high-velocity clouds, although detailed maps of such features show them to be filamentary instead of cloud-like. Their distance and origin continue to be the subject of controversy. The bulk of these HI structures in the northern sky follow an arc defined by a weak radio shell found in radio surveys …" (The Invisible Universe: The Story of Radio Astronomy, Gerrit L. Verschuur, p55)"

http://plasmauniverse.info/downloadsCosmo/Verschuur-CIV-HI-TPS-Aug2007b.pdf


"Self-organized Critical Transport" with the "Bulk Flow" of plasma

"Plasmas are characterized by the long-ranged electromagnetic force i.e. all charged particles are affected by all the other particles no matter how far they may be."

Now from the book "Plasma Astrophysics":

"In toroidal plasmas the toroidicity (the geometrical effect) induces to couple modes with each other at adjacent resonant surfaces. This leads to a chain of modes successively tied together, so much so to form a (even) macroscopic radial mode. If this large mode structure manifests itself, the spatial scale for transport across the magnetic field is characterized not by the Larmor radius, but by the larger patch or the macroscopic scale such as the temperature (or density) scale length. This leads to a relaxation of the plasma profile over this macroscopic length. If the plasma is driven by external or internal sources of heat ect., depending upon the strength of sources and the size of scale length, different equilibrium temperature (or density) profiles and temporary features (such as relaxation, oscillations) will arise."

In other words, this "dark flow" may well be one seriously large self-organized flow of plasma with co-moving "modes" of plasma systems within it (the observed galaxy clusters). This is also referred to in Plasma Physics as a "bulk flow" of plasma.


Dark flow = dense dark Birkeland currents

Dark matter = dark Birkeland currents:

http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2008/arch08/080723darkcurrents.htm

http://electric-cosmos.org/electricplasma.htm

Plasma waves, longitudinal waves, scalar waves:

http://www.k-meyl.de/go/Primaerliteratur/Scalar-Waves.pdf

The Whittaker longitudinal helical waves from the scalar potential which in turn create the magnetic fields and the Birkeland currents.

The torsion spirals of the Whittaker bidirectional waves become visible plasma.

http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Continuous_Creation_from_Electric_Plasma.php



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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #458 on: December 15, 2017, 01:23:20 PM »
THE SAGNAC EFFECT = THE AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT













http://zfn.mpdl.mpg.de/data/Reihe_A/44/ZNA-1989-44a-1145.pdf

Substratum Interpretation of the Sagnac and the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Dr. Friedwardt Winterberg

Ph.D., Physics 1955 Max Planck Institute, Goettingen, Germany (Adv: Prof. W. Heisenberg)
1968-Present Professor of physics, University of Nevada Reno
1955-1959 Group leader theoretical physics division at nuclear research reactor in Hamburg, Germany, under President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" program
Elected member International Academy of Astronautics, Paris, France.
Member of American Physical Society.
Recipient of the 1979 Hermann Oberth Gold Medal (the highest award in astronautical research given for his work on nuclear rocket propulsion).
At 26 years of age in 1955, laid the foundation for GPS system, proposing to put atomic clocks into artificial satellites.
More than 260 single author papers in refereed journals, two books, with many citations, including citations by the NY Times, Scientific American, Physics Today et al., 55 publications since 1992.

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:35:27 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #459 on: December 16, 2017, 12:30:01 PM »
THE SAGNAC EFFECT = THE AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT II

Superpotential = Ether = boson string lattice at the Planck length/scale

Aether = medium through which the boson strings propagate

Boson = photon = neutrino

A boson is a cavity resonator.

The boson is the Kaluza-Klein electrogravitational particle.


Potential = bidirectional longitudinal boson waves

Gravitational Potential = dextrorotatory longitudinal boson wave

Electric Potential = laevorotatory longitudinal boson wave

A subquark contains some 14 billion bosons (double torsion vortex).

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1774536#msg1774536


The longitudinal waves create transverse waves (wave particle duality is solved at once in ether quantum mechanics: longitudinal strings of bosons travel through transverse subquark waves).




Essays on the Formal Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory, Dr. Patrick Corneille, pg. 138-183

G. Bekefi, Radiation processes in plasma, J. Wiley and Sons, 1966


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323049/

The Aharonov-Bohm effect and its applications to electron phase microscopy, A. Tonomura (state of the art proofs of the Aharonov-Bohm effect)

E.T. Whittaker proved mathematically the existence of the boson longitudinal waves, and the relationship between the potentials and the electromagnetic field.

He also proved the global Aharonov-Bohm effect: interferometry on a global scale (evidenced by the Tunguska explosion caused by the collision of two ball lightning spheres).

The Aharonov-Bohm effect proves the existence of the potential, the hidden structure of the universe made up of longitudinal boson waves.

"The optical whirlwind effect of an artificial rotation of an overall system really shows itself, without unexpected compensation, as an effect of the first order of the movement in comparison with the ether.  The experience directly reveals […] the linear delay […] that the overall rotation of the optical system produces in the ether between the two systems of inverse waves T and R during their propagation around the circuit."

G. Sagnac

"So what is making one of the light  beams travel slower? Sagnac said it was due to the ether impeding its  velocity - a resistance that is easily generated by rotating the table. So  predictable and precise are these results that the “Sagnac effect,” as it is  commonly called, is used routinely in today’s technology for the purpose of sensing rotation, as well as in mechanical gyroscopes."

The equivalence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and of the Sagnac effect means that the existence of ether as it pertains to the Sagnac experiment is totally proven.

http://zfn.mpdl.mpg.de/data/Reihe_A/44/ZNA-1989-44a-1145.pdf

Dr. F. Winterberg proved the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect and linked it directly to the Sagnac effect: in both cases, the phase shift is caused by a swirling motion of the ether.

Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect:

https://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.230404

http://physics.ipm.ac.ir/seminars/2013/11dec13/pdf/1.pdf

"The Anderson Experiments proved in 1932, that Absorption of a Gamma-ray energy quantum of 1.02 million electron volts (1.02 MeV) in any point of space makes a free electron and positron pair appear there. When such a pair of particles disappears in any point of space, there are two (at least) quanta emitted, of total energy 1.02 MeV. These results were and are misinterpreted by relativists, claiming that here radiation turns into electrons and positrons, creates them, and that electrons and positrons turn, or annihilate into energy.  But, "appearance" does not necessarily mean "creation". Moreover, never was a single electron or positron created out of empty space nor annihilated into empty space, even with the now available energies up to a million MeV. Clearly, 1.02 MeV cannot create in empty space an electron and a positron, if up to million MeV energies cannot create there even one of these particles. Hence, these particles must be existing in space, bound to one another by the 1.02 MeV energy."

Electron = dextrorotatory subquark
Positron = laevorotatory subquark

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1922302#msg1922302

“After years of careful experiments, Dr. Kozyrev and his colleagues found that in a left-hand rotating system the time flow is positive-it adds energy. In a right-hand system the time flow is negative. ... In Dr. Kozyrev's view our world is a left-hand system and it has a positive time flow that adds energy to our universe."


« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:38:57 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #460 on: December 17, 2017, 02:31:17 AM »
LONGITUDINAL BOSON STRINGS WITHIN TRANSVERSE SUBQUARK WAVES

"...the failure of the world's physicists to find such a (satisfactory) theory, after many years of intensive research," says Dirac, "leads me to think that the aetherless basis of physical theory may have reached the end of its capabilities and to see in the Aether a new hope for the future".

Paul Dirac, the Nobel Prize winner in physics in 1933
Scientific American, The Evolution of Physicists Picture of Nature, May 1963










Science of Seership, Geoffrey Hodson

In the interspace between the copper atoms there was more or less solid etheric matter, consisting of many small particles not related to one another and not packed in any special way. These particles were heart-shaped, and appeared to answer to the descrip­tion of Ultimate Physical Atoms (E1).

When the current was put on a sudden state of tension was noticed, and all movement in the inter­space appeared to cease. The heart-shaped particles immediately placed themselves laterally in lines along the wire, the point of one being attracted towards the hollow of the next. Along the line of the locked heart-shaped particles there was a continuous passage of very much smaller astral particles.

Summarizing what has been so far achieved, we find that:

1.     The nature and direction of the current has been observed, i.e., That an electric current consists of a flow of astral ultimate particles along lines of locked E1 atoms (physical ultimate particles) from the negative to the positive pole of the battery.


https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1401101#msg1401101



E1 = subquark ether level
E2 = quarks
E3 = mesons
E4 = baryons
E5 = atom itself

An electric current brought to bear upon the Anu checks their proper motions, i.e., renders them slower; the Anu exposed to it arrange themselves in parallel lines, and in each line the heart-shaped depression receives the flow, which passes out through the apex into the depression of the next, and so on. The Anu always set themselves to the current. Fig. 4. In all the diagrams the heart-shaped body, exaggerated to show the depression caused by the inflow and the point caused by the outflow, is a single Anu.



http://www.subtleenergies.com/ormus/oc/chaptr01.htm

The exact number of these bubbles included in an ultimate physical atom is not readily ascertainable, but several different lines of calculation agree in indicating it as closely approximating to the almost incredible total of fourteen thousand millions.

Bubble of light = boson = photon = neutrino

Given that the gaps in the periodic table represented by these anticipated un-
stable elements were known to Besant & Leadbeater, how can we be sure that
their descriptions were based upon real  objects and were not fabricated  ac-
cording  to their expectations?  Knowing which  groups of  the periodic  table
these  undiscovered  elements belong  to could  have  enabled them  to  deduce
what shape their atoms ought to have, having decided upon a rule to link atom-
ic shapes to groups. But the values of  the atomic weights of  these elements
were unknown to science at the time when Besant and Leadbeater published
observations of them and yet the "number weights" (defined shortly) that they
calculated for  these  elements  agree with  their  chemical atomic  weights  to
within one unit. It is highly implausible that this measure of agreement could
have  come about by  chance in  every case. Furthermore, analysis (Phillips,
1994) of the particles reported to have been observed in the supposed atoms of
these elements undiscovered by science at the time reveals such a high degree
of agreement with the theory presented in this paper to explain micro-psi ob-
servations of atoms that neither deliberate fabrication nor hallucinations influ-
enced by knowledge of the gaps in the periodic table are realistic explanations
of these elements being examined before their scientific discovery.  These two
considerations strongly suggest that the descriptions by Besant and Leadbeat-
er of the supposed atoms of these elements must have been based upon physi-
cal objects, for there is simply no more plausible alternative that can explain
such a measure of agreement.

Chadwick (neutron), Pauli (neutrino), Gell-Mann (quarks), Higgs (boson), ALL of these physicists COPIED their "discoveries" from a single source.

The entire theory of strings was copied from the pages of this work.

Each and every element and isotope correctly described (in 1908) DECADES before they were even discovered: promethium (1945), astatine (1940), francium (1939), protactinium (1921), technetium (1937), deuterium, neon-22 nuclide (1913).

A clear description of strings, bosons, quarks, subquarks, positrons, DECADES before these concepts even came into existence.


Extrasensory Perception of Subatomic Particles by Dr. Stephen Phillips (UCLA, Cambridge), an extraordinary analysis of the discoveries listed in the Occult Chemistry:

https://web.archive.org/web/20120128042636/http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_09_4_phillips.pdf


Achievements of the Occult Chemistry treatise (subquark ether quantum physics):

Baryons, mesons, quarks and /subquarks/preons were described over 50 years before conventional science.

It stated that matter is composed of strings 80 years before string theory.

It described the existence of positrons 30 years before they were detailed.

It reported the Higgs field over 50 years before Peter Higgs.

It presented the existence of isotopes 5 years before their discovery.


A proton is made up of NINE laevorotatory subquarks - an electron is actually comprised of NINE dextrorotatory subquarks (called now preons).

However, modern science has mistakenly named a SINGLE dextrorotatory subquark as an electron and has ascribed THE TOTAL charge of the NINE corresponding subquarks as the total negative charge of a single electron, thus confusing the whole matter.

A boson = a neutrino = a photon and does have mass.

Let us remember that in one extension to the Standard Model, left- and right-handed neutrinos exist. These Dirac neutrinos acquire mass via the Higgs mechanism but right-handed neutrinos interact much more weakly than any other particles.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1676115#msg1676115


It is to be noted that each of us has the innate ability to view matter at a quantum level (during dreams), the theosophists who wrote the Occult Chemistry and the Science of Seership were able to retain this proficiency during the day as well.

Subquark = UPA particle = Anu

"Named after the British physicist Peter Higgs, the Higgs particle was first described 55 years ago — that is, about five years before Higgs and five other physicists proposed its existence — by the Theosophist and clairvoyant Geoffrey Hodson (1886-1983) who possessed the same ability to view matter at a quantum level as did the authors of the Occult Chemistry."

"On January 26, 1959, G. Hodson remarked:

"The sight I have of these objects is, I think, improved from the earlier observations. They're surrounded by a field of spinning particles going round them. The one I've got hold of is like a spinning top — the old-fashioned spinning top, but imagine that with (spinning rapidly) a mist or field round it of at least half its own dimension, of particles spinning in the same direction much smaller than itself. The Anu is not only the heart-shaped corrugated form that I have described, it is the centre of a great deal of energy and activity and within it. Outside it, as I have said, there's this rushing flood of particles, the corrugations themselves are alive with energy and some of it is escaping — not all of it, but some of it, and this gives it a tremendously dynamic look. Inside, it's almost like a furnace, it is like a furnace (I don't mean in heat) of boiling activity — organised by the bye, yes, in some form of spiral fashion admittedly, but there's a great deal of activity of free, minuter particles."

These particles much smaller than UPAs that Hodson described as forming a "mist or field" that circulated a UPA are Higgs bosons.

On April 8, 1957, whilst examining the diamond in a ring, Hodson said:

"My first sight inside the diamond is of the funnels only, like a cluster of funnels, two sets. It is possible to see the two pyramids as if slightly separated so that the base of an upper one can be envisaged, visualised, almost seen, though cohesion is apparent and all eight funnels are radiating from a common centre. Now, I want to record again the experience of the whole phenomenon being pervaded by countless myriads of minutest conceivable, physically inconceivably minute points of light which I take to be free anu and which for some reason are not caught up in the system of atoms at all but remain unmoved by it and pervade it. These are everywhere. They pervade everything, like ... Strangely unaffected by the tremendous forces at work in the atom and rushes of energy, and so forth, they don't seem to get caught up in those or be affected much by them. If at all. They remain as a virgin atmosphere in which the phenomenon is taking place."

Frequently reported seeing clairvoyantly myriads of minute points of light pervading the space occupied by atoms that his vision had focussed upon, as well as everywhere around him, whether his eyes were open or shut. For example, Hodson said:

"I wonder if you or your colleagues would care to comment to me upon the commonest phenomenon that I see, all the time, unless I make an effort to shut it out, and now when I emerge from my clairvoyant investigation it fills the whole air, world and universe, and it consists of countless myriads of the smallest possible points you can imagine, the whole air is filled with it. It is all in extremely rapid movement. Sometimes it makes little lines of groups of them. Sometimes it is a kind of shimmer. But it is all granular. Whatever there is granular. Minutely granular, far inconceivably beyond anything, a pin's point would be enormously large in relationship to this, if one could see a pin's point. It's extremely minute. And they are everywhere. And they've always been, ever since etheric clairvoyance showed itself to me at all, always the world, the air, everything I look at is pervaded and surrounded by these countless myriads of minute points."

These were not "free anu," as he assumed (he never checked whether they really were UPAs by magnifying individual points of light). Nor were they just molecules in the air, for he categorically asserted that they appeared to his vision to be many orders of magnitude smaller than UPAs, which, as subquark states of superstrings, would be much more minute than even atomic nuclei, let alone atoms and molecules. Instead, his faculty of remote viewing the subatomic world was revealing the sea of Higgs bosons that fill space. Far from the core of a vortex, the density of the Higgs field is constant and the Higgs vacuum state is superconducting. It varies rapidly towards zero in the region of the core, where the Higgs field becomes a normal conductor. This was the "mist or field" composed of much smaller particles that he noticed revolving around the UPA, namely, the string-like, vortical excitations of the ambient, superconducting Higgs field in the vicinity of magnetic monopole sources of the colour flux that is squeezed into and channelled along the normally conducting core of these vortices.

Here, therefore, is unambiguous evidence that a well-known clairvoyant was able to notice vortical motion around the basic units of matter of numerous, smaller particles filling all space as a "field" five years before physicists proposed this type of particle and decades before string theorists discovered vortex solutions in the Higgs field in their analysis of the confinement of quarks by the string model version of QCD."





"The processional motion (wobble) of hydrogen triangles was described in 1924 (The Theosophist, vol. 45) during a study of the hydroxyl group (atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together) in the water molecule: It was said: "Each triangle rotates flat, and whilst rotating. sways a little up and down, as the lid of a pot rotates before it finally settles down" (Occult Chemistry, 3rd ed., p. 206). This is a description of Larmor precession, for the hydrogen triangles are protons endowed with a spin and a magnetic dipole moment (i.e., they are like a bar magnet, which aligns itself to a magnetic field). The remarkable significance of this is that Besant & Leadbeater described the spin precession of a proton in a magnetic field a year before George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit introduced the concept of 'electron spin,' which posits an intrinsic rotational angular momentum for this particle. The observation was made therefore before the proton was realised to possess a spin as well! Neither Besant & Leadbeater nor physicists could have known in 1924 that some electrically charged subatomic particles have an intrinsic spin that endows them with an intrinsic magnetic moment, causing them to wobble in a magnetic field. Here is clear and undeniable evidence of the objective nature of their micro-psi visions.

It was described earlier how the MPA of a second species of the inert gas neon with a number weight of 22.33 was described in 1908 by Besant & Leadbeater, about four years before the experimental physicist Francis Aston separated the neon-20 and neon-22 isotopes with his new mass spectrograph, although at the time he thought wrongly that he had discovered a new element. Aston, of course, got the scientific credit, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1922. But, despite their error in assuming that they had paranormally observed atoms, Besant & Leadbeater were the first people to discover that neon had two forms, even publishing a number weight of 22.33 that was appropriate for the Ne-22 isotope."



« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:46:13 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #461 on: December 17, 2017, 08:42:50 AM »
LONGITUDINAL BOSON STRINGS WITHIN TRANSVERSE SUBQUARK WAVES II



https://phys.org/news/2011-07-unseen.html

"The image on the left, above, provided by the RIKEN scientific research institute in Japan depicts the six quarks making up the H dibaryon. The three coloured spheres denote the three colour states of a quark, labelled red, green & blue.

The image on the right can be interpreted as the deuteron (the nucleus of the stable isotope of hydrogen), created prior to observation by the micro-psi selection of a hydrogen molecule, which resulted in its two protons fusing together to form a deuteron after one of them changed into a neutron."

Using Jülich's accelerator COSY, German researchers confirmed in 2011 the possibility of dibaryons by discovering strong evidence for the existence of a short-lived resonance composed of six quarks.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140606102043.htm

http://www.smphillips.mysite.com/deuterium.html

"The description of Adyarium was published in 1932, which was the year when James Chadwick discovered the neutron and Heisenburg proposed that it is present in atomic nuclei. It would be another 32 years before physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig proposed the theory of quarks. The fact that Besant & Leadbeater reported Adyarium to break up into six positive triplets and six negative triplets, i.e., six up quarks and six d quarks — precisely what the quark model predicts for the composition of the two protons and two neutrons in two deuterons — is incontrovertible evidence that quarks were remote-viewed."



Results for so-called "lattice QCD" calculations of the energy density of the flux tubes connecting three quarks were discussed in 2003 at the International Conference on Color Confinement and Hadrons in Quantum Chromodynamics. They are shown below. The Y-shaped profile of the colour-coded density contours of the flux lines with quarks at their ends is strikingly similar to a diagram of a hydrogen triplet that appears in the 1908 edition of Occult Chemistry, in which Y-shaped lines of force "of a magnetic nature" terminate on UPAs.

http://www.smphillips.mysite.com/occult-chemistry-07.html



"One of the central and crucial observations made by Besant and Leadbeater was that a hydrogen atom was composed of 18 subatomic particles which they christened as ‘Ultimate physical atoms’ or UPAs. Likewise they reported that the atoms of other elements also comprised of identical types of UPAs whose numbers increased in multiples of 18. Note that much of all this was done well before Rutherfords discovery of the atomic  nucleus in 1911, in other words before the dawn of the ‘nuclear era’!. In the early 20s came the highly successful Bohr-Schrodinger model of the atom, according to which a hydrogen atom comprised of a single proton around which orbited a single electron.

During the mid 70's, a theoretical physicist from Cambridge University in England, by the name of Stephen Phillips who was carrying out PH.D. studies in 'particle physics' at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA), came across a copy of a book titled the 'Physics of the secret doctrine' by Kingsland wherein there was a diagram of the hydrogen atom as seen and recorded by Besant and Leadbeater. Physicists will recall that in 1963 a breakthrough in understanding elementary particles and nuclear structure came about through the postulation of a class of subnuclear particles called 'Quarks' independently by Gell‑Mann and Zweig. When Phillips saw Besant's diagram of the hydrogen atom he was astounded beyond belief as he realized that these clairvoyants had given out the 'quark' and indeed the 'subquark' structure of the nucleus as early as in 1895!

Phillips was so fascinated and overwhelmed by the exhaustive studies of Besant and Leadbeater, that he immediately embarked on a detailed analysis and interpretation of their findings, culminating in the publication of his 250 page book titled 'Extra sensory perception of quarks' in 1980.

Early on during their 'micro‑psi' investiga­tions, Besant and Leadbeater observed that different specimens of the same element were composed of identical microscopic objects which they christened as 'Micro Psi Atoms' or MPAs. They presumed that MPAs were atoms of the particular element under study, in their normal state, undisturbed by the act of random selection and psychokinetic (PK) perturbation.

The MPAs of elements as they appeared to them during 'micro psi visualization' comprised of symmetrically arranged groups of particles or 'points of light’ bound together in such rapid complex orbital motion that they presented initially only a blurred unfocussed image. But with practice and using a'special form of will‑power' they could slow down their motion sufficiently enough to observe the details. Throughout the investigations Leadbeater specialized in the study of the geometrical arrangement of the constituents of the MPAs and in identifying and counting their number whilst Annie Besant examined the configuration of the 'lines of force' linking and holding together groups of particles. These investigators could tune the magnifying power of their micro‑psi vision over a wide range and thereby resolve the images of particles into clusters of 'points of light', each of which were discerned to be discrete three dimensional objects. As the structure and configuration of each of these ultimate objects were identical, independent of the element under study, they surmised that these were the fundamental building blocks of all matter, and called them as 'Ultimate Physical Atoms’ or UPAs.

At this point it is worth clearly distinguish­ing between MPAs and UPAs. Besant and Leadbeater presumably identified MPAs with 'What physicists now refer to as the 'nucleus' of the atom, although in 1895 when they first commenced their investigations Rutherford had not yet discovered the atomic nucleus. There were as many MPAs as there are elements. UPAs on the other hand are the sub nuclear particles of which all nuclear matter is made of. As observed by Besant and Leadbeater there is essentially only one type of UPA, but this occurs either as a 'male' (or positive) version or a 'female' (or negative) version, which are mirror images of each other.

The clairvoyant investigators found that the MPAs of different elements had different shapes. Interestingly, barring a few exceptions, the shape of an MPA was correlated with the position of the element in the 'periodic table' of elements. (The reader may refer to any elementary text book on atomic physics or physical chemistry to know more about the Periodic Table of Elements if they wish). Thus the MPAs of all elements belonging to a particular group of the periodic table and consequently possessing similar chemical properties have similar shapes. The seven shapes into which the MPAs were categorised are titled by them as: 'spike', 'dumb‑bell', 'tetrahedron', 'cube', 'octahedron', 'bar' and 'star'. The geometrical symmetry of the MPAs simplified Leadbeater's task of counting the number of UPAs in an MPA, considering that the heavier elements had several thousands of UPAs in their MPAs. By 1907 when the first edition of 'Occult chemistry' was published Besant and Leadbeater had examined nearly 60 elements and altogether by the end of their monumental research work spanning 38 years they had recorded for posterity the details of 111 MPAs.

As already mentioned Besant and Leadbeater counted 18 UPA particles in the Micro Physical Atoms (MPA) of Hydrogen gas. A striking feature of their observations was that the number of UPAs increased approximately in multiples of 18 as the atomic weight of the element increased. By the turn of the last century science had progressed sufficiently enough that the atomic weights of most of the elements of the periodic table had been determined on a scale normalized to unity for hydrogen. When Besant and Leadbeater found that for several elements the number of UPAs in an MPA was an integral multiple of 18, they divided the number of UPAs counted by them by 18 to obtain an estimate of the 'atomic weight' of the elements. The 1919 edition of 'Occult chemistry' compares the micro‑psi atomic weight so obtained (specified to the second decimal place!) with the scientific atomic weight, and points out the remarkable agreement between the two.

Besant and Leadbeater began studying the atoms of elements systematically in increasing order of atomic weight starting from Hydrogen. When they reached neon (element no. 10) they were rather puzzled to observe that there were two varieties of neon MPAs having slightly different number of UPAs each, namely 360 and 402. They called these as Neon and 'Meta‑Neon' and recorded their micro‑psi atomic weights as 20.00 and 22.33 by dividing the number of UPAs in the MPA by 18. Similar behaviour was noted in the MPAs of Argon, Krypton, Xenon and even Platinum.

The scientifically minded readers may have guessed by now that Besant and Leadbeater had essentially stumbled upon the phenomenon referred to by atomic science as 'isotopes', five years before Aston's discovery of the same in 1912 using his newly invented instrument known as mass spec­trograph!

From the observed shapes of the MPAs and deduced micro‑psi atomic weights, these investigators were able to place the element under study properly in the periodic table of elements. In most cases, when the identity of the element was known to them already, the above method confirmed that their observations were accurate. In a few cases however the elements they investigated were not listed in the periodic table and in fact there were unfilled gaps in the table in the relevant locations. Thus these clairvoyant researchers accidentally discovered five elements which were unknown to science at the time of their work. These elements which have since been identified by science are: Promethium ('Illenium'), Astatine ('element no 85'), Fran­cium ('element no 87), Protoactinium ('element no 91') and Technetium ('Masuroium'). The names in brackets are the names assigned by Besant and Leadbeater in their original publication. It is thus obvious that these clairvoyants were surprisingly accurate in their estimates of atomic weights and the proper Placement of the elements studied, in the periodic chart."

Walter Russell, one of Tesla's best friends, created a new periodic table of elements, taking into account the ELEMENTS FORMED BY THE E2, E3 AND E4 subquark configurations (see previous message). That is, there are plenty of other elements before Hydrogen.

http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/russell_1.gif

http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/russell_2.gif

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:49:01 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #462 on: December 19, 2017, 05:09:29 AM »
THE MAXWELL-LODGE EFFECT = THE AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT



http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.726.6101&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The Maxwell-Lodge effect: significance of electromagnetic potentials in the classical theory

G. Rousseaux, R. Kofman, and O. Minazzoli

The Aharonov-Bohm effect has been the starting point of the reconsideration of the reality of the vector potential within quantum physics. We argue that the Maxwell-Lodge effect is its classical equivalent: what is the origin of the electromotive force induced in a coil surrounding a (finite) solenoid fed by an alternative current? We demonstrate theoretically, experimentally and numerically that the effect can be understood using the vector potential while it cannot using only the fields.

“What? Do you mean to tell me that I can tell you how
much magnetic field there is inside of here by measuring
currents through here and here – through wires which
are entirely outside – through wires in which there is no
magnetic field... In quantum mechanical interference experiments
there can be situations in which classically there
would be no expected influence whatever. But nevertheless
there is an influence. Is it action at distance? No, A is
as real as B-realer, whatever that means.”

R. Feynman


“throughout most of 20th century the Heaviside-Hertz form of Maxwell’s equations were taught to college students all over the world. The reason is quite obvious: the Heaviside-Hertz form is simpler, and exhibits an appealing near symmetry between E and H. With the widespread use of this vector-potential-less version of Maxwell’s equations, there arouse what amounted to a dogma: that the electromagnetic field resides in E and H. Where both of them vanish, there cannot be any electromagnetic effects on a charged particle. This dogma explains why when the Aharonov-Bohm article was published it met with general disbelief. . . E and H together do not completely describe the electromagnetic field, and. . . the vector potential cannot be totally eliminated in quantum mechanics. . . the field strengths underdescribe electromagnetism.”

C.N. Yang, Nobel prize laureate

We proposed a complete description of the Maxwell-Lodge effect which conclusion is the necessity to use the vector potential to interpret it. The electromotive force induced by a changing current in a solenoid through an outer coil is due to the vector potential outside the solenoid. The effect has nothing to do with either the propagative component of the magnetic field, a possible inclination of the coils forming the solenoid or the leak magnetic field due to the finite length of the solenoid. Then, we propose the vector potential, usually considered as a “mathematical tool”, to become a “real field” in the sense introduced by Richard Feynman.


http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/26623/17220

The Physical Entity of Vector Potential in Electromagnetism

Vladimir A. Leus, Ray T. Smith and Simon Maher

The scalar and vector potentials were introduced into electromagnetic physics in the second half of the nineteenth century. The chief aim was to use them as auxiliary mathematical quantities in order to solve certain practical problems. Nevertheless the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect (1959) in quantum mechanics has suggested that vector potential rather than magnetic field is the causal agent in such an effect. Recent research on the Maxwell-Lodge paradox--induction of voltage in the loop circling a long solenoid carrying alternating current--has confirmed that induction occurs in a region of space effectively free from magnetic field. This again reinforces the idea of vector potential as a physical entity rather than the auxiliary artificial quantity of classical electrodynamics. The present investigation is intended to provide some degree of corroboration of the previous result. The experimental arrangement consists of a ‘special’ transformer containing movable, single turn coils wound onto rectangular frames. The primary coil is powered from a signal generator providing alternating current over a variable frequency range while the secondary output voltage is connected across a C.R.O./precision voltmeter. Measurements of transformer e.m.f. were carried out at several frequencies in the range 100 Hz–20 kHz and with various conditions of shielding around the primary and secondary coils. Certain additional experiments were carried out with a long solenoid and torus solenoid supplied with different core materials. Experimental results for induced e.m.f’s are presented and in special cases correlated with the calculated values of mutual inductance. Overall the results tend to confirm the primacy of vector potential over magnetic field as an explanation of the phenomenon.

 “...the vector potential appears to give the most direct description of the physics. This becomes more apparent the more deeply we go into quantum theory. In the general theory of quantum electrodynamics, one takes the vector and scalar potentials as the fundamental quantities in a set of equations that replace the Maxwell equations: E and B are slowly disappearing from the modern expression of physical laws; they are being replaced by A and φ

(Feynman et al, 1989, chapter 15, section 5, The Feynman Lecture on Physics (Vol. 2), 1989)

So are we still entitled to ask has the vector potential A any physical significance? According to Maxwell’s point of view it is a condition for motion of stress in a medium already existing in space (aether). Consequently, by acceptance of vector potential as a physical entity we seem to return to the aether of the 19th century that is, in fact, the aether of Maxwell, Lorentz and Lodge, but now seen from a somewhat different perspective. The discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in 1959 seemed to provide further evidence for the significance of vector potential. The shift in the fringe pattern between two electron beams passing across and either side of a long current carrying solenoid should not exist if it is assumed that only the magnetic field can affect the electrons. Nevertheless a mathematical treatment involving both vector potential and the Schrodinger equation demonstrated that a quantum force is present even when the magnetic field is zero.

Weber's action at a distance electrodynamics theory cannot be true: the mathematical proof of the existence of the longitudinal waves was published by E.T. Whittaker in 1903 and in 1904.





Quantum Aharonov-Bohm effect:

https://www.nature.com/articles/17755

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599092/

https://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0102096.pdf


Both electromagnetic and gravitational fields are caused by the e/m and gravitational potentials (longitudinal subquark waves) and by the superpotentials (boson strings which propagate within the longitudinal waves).

The existence of ether (potentials and superpotentials) is proven beyond a shadow of a doubt, both mathematically and experimentally.

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:53:00 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #463 on: December 20, 2017, 07:40:15 AM »
TOPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT


The Aharonov-Bohm effect is related to the concepts of multiple-connectedness and non-Abelian groups in topology, fundamental notions which provide a much better understanding of the theoretical aspects of the problem. The Heaviside equations can be described by using a U(1) invariant theory; however, the potentials can only be described using a SU(2) electromagnetics representation. The superpotentials have to be described using the O(3) invariant electrodynamic theory.

Topology and the Physical Properties of Electromagnetic Fields
Terence W. Barrett

http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/Pre2001/V07NO1PDF/V07N1BAR.pdf


O(3) Invariance of the Aharonov-Bohm effect

http://www.upitec.org/OmniaOpera/omnia-opera-616.pdf

http://www.atomicprecision.com/OmniaOpera/omnia-opera-504.pdf


Aharonov–Bohm Effect and Magnetic Monopoles

http://bolvan.ph.utexas.edu/~vadim/Classes/2011f/abm.pdf








The opposing views regarding the Aharonov-Bohm effect have not taken into consideration the topological aspects the theory and have tried to describe the effect within the context of classical electrodynamics U(1) invariant theory.

Even so, their papers were debunked without using topology as a mathematical tool:

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1605/1605.05470.pdf

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0708/0708.2428.pdf

Confirmation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect:

https://www.physik.uni-muenchen.de/lehre/vorlesungen/wise_09_10/quantum_matter/lecture/Schwarzschild1986.pdf


The Aharonov-Bohm effect is a LOCAL theory, where the effect is being observed during experiments carried out within a laboratory.

The Whittaker-Aharonov-Bohm effect is a GLOBAL result: it can be created via scalar interferometry and observed at a distance of thousands of kilometers from the laboratory (the Tunguska event).


A most interesting consequence of the Whittaker-Aharonov-Bohm effect, as it pertains to the gravitational potential and superpotential, is the fact that TERRESTRIAL GRAVITY IS AN EXTERNAL FORCE which acts upon matter created by the longitudinal dextrorotatory gravitational subquark wave (potential): the mass of an object does NOT attract anything at all.

“This implies an important conclusion: bodies of different volumes that are in the same gradient medium acquire the same acceleration.

Note that if we keep watch on the fall of bodies of different masses and volumes in the Earth’s gravitation field under conditions when the effect of the air resistance is minimized (or excluded), the bodies acquire the same acceleration. Galileo was the first to establish this fact. The most vivid experiment corroborating the fact of equal acceleration for bodies of different masses is a fall of a lead pellet and bird feather in the deaerated glass tube. Imagine we start dividing one of the falling bodies into some parts and watching on the fall of these parts in the vacuum. Quite apparently, both large and small parts will fall down with the same acceleration in the Earth’s gravitation field. If we continue this division down to atoms we can obtain the same result. Hence it follows that the gravitation field is applied to every element that has a mass and constitutes a physical body. This field will equally accelerate large and small bodies only if it is gradient and acts on every elementary particle of the bodies. But a gradient gravitation field can act on bodies if there is a medium in which the bodies are immersed. Such a medium is the ether medium. The ether medium has a gradient effect not on the outer sheath of a body (a bird feather or lead pellet), but directly on the nuclei and electrons constituting the bodies. That is why bodies of different densities acquire equal acceleration.

Equal acceleration of the bodies of different volumes and masses in the gravitation field also indicates such an interesting fact that it does not matter what external volume the body has and what its density is. Only the ether medium volume that is forced out by the total amount of elementary particles (atomic nuclei, electrons etc.) matters. If gravitation forces acted on the outer sheath of the bodies then the bodies of a lower density would accelerate in the gravitation field faster than those of a higher density.

The examples discussed above allow clarifying the action mechanism of the gravitation force of physical bodies on each other. Newton was the first to presume that there is a certain relation between the gravitation mechanism and Archimedean principle. The medium exerting pressure on a gravitating body is the ether.”




« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 03:57:22 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #464 on: December 20, 2017, 12:55:49 PM »
THE GRAVITATIONAL AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT = THE SAGNAC EFFECT

http://zfn.mpdl.mpg.de/data/Reihe_A/44/ZNA-1989-44a-1145.pdf

Substratum Interpretation of the Sagnac and the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Dr. Friedwardt Winterberg

The existence of the potential poses a huge problem for heliocentrism.

The Whittaker birectional longitudinal waves form the gravitational potential (right-handed spin) and the electromagnetic potential (left-handed spin).

We are being told that the spherical earth has BOTH a magnetic field and a gravitational field.

"A Gravity-based Theory

There is, however, another theory that does not rely on the concept of an aether, but is very closely aligned with the aether theories discussed thus far. The late Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering Petr Beckmann proposed that the outdated term "aether" could be replaced with the more modern term "gravity." Clearly, a gravitational field would have characteristics very similar to a partially entrained aether. Both would cause the bending of light rays. Gravity would be strongest near the surface of the planet where the partially entrained aether was most dense. Light would still behave in the same manner, if the speed of light is constant with respect to the source of the dominant gravitational field. This would square with all of the known experimental data because in nearly every case, the observer has always been tied to the Earth-bound frame of reference—so we substitute the word "gravity" for the word "aether." Obviously gravity exists and we know that, although gravity is "emitted" by the Earth, it does not rotate with it. So this is a very plausible replacement for a partially entrained aether. It also stands to reason if we speculate that light is actually a disturbance in the gravitational field.

Dr. William Cantrell"

The local aether model (potential) thus becomes also the gravitational potential for the rotating spherical Earth.

However, this aether (potential) envelope is stationary: that is, the Earth rotates within this spherical shell of aether/ether.



Let us remember that this local aether model HAS TO BE adopted given the fact that the orbital Sagnac effect is not being recorded by the GPS satellites.

But the gravitational potential and the electromagnetic potential form a bidirectional wave in double torsion fashion, as proven by E.T. Whittaker.

One of the them cannot be stationary (the aether/gravitational potential) while the other one (the electromagnetic potential) rotates along with the Earth around its own axis: the waves would be decoupled in an instant.

BOTH potentials have to travel together: this can happen only in the case of a stationary Earth, where the bidirectional waves propagate/rotate above the surface.

The ether drift has been recorded/measured even by the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887: the experiment did record the ROTATIONAL ether drift, but not the ORBITAL ether drift.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1780340#msg1780340

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 04:00:24 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #465 on: December 22, 2017, 09:59:56 AM »
THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF THE STATIONARY EARTH

Modern science assumes that the gravitational field and the magnetic field of the Earth represent two different physical phenomena: one is stationary ( the gravitational field does not rotate along with the supposed rotation of the Earth), the other one (the magnetic field) is rotating with the Earth around its own axis.



Moreover, the magnetic field is visually represented as follows:



The lines of force issue forth from the south pole, arc through space, and re-enter at the other end, the north pole.

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/gallery/Earths-magneticfieldlines-dipole.html

The dynamo theory of the origin of the magnetic field of the Earth is erroneous:

http://davidpratt.info/inner1.htm#s5


The magnetic field of the Earth HAS TO rotate together with the Earth:

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/127766/does-the-geomagnetic-field-rotate

The gravitational field of the Earth does not rotate with the Earth:

Earth also rotates on its axis, and it rotates through its gravitational field.

https://www.lewrockwell.com/2011/02/tom-bethell/relativity-and-the-priesthood-of-science/

https://web.archive.org/web/20140903074446/http://www.realityreviewed.com/Restoring%20forces.htm (restoring forces paradox = lateral gravity of the atmosphere necessary to explain its supposed rotation)


The first scientist to discover that the magnetic field consists of a DOUBLE CURRENT/FLOW OF PARTICLES (NORTH TO SOUTH, BUT ALSO SOUTH TO NORTH) was Edward Leedskalnin.

http://www.leedskalnin.com/

http://keelynet.com/unclass/magcurnt.txt (Magnetic Current by E. Leedskalnin)

"Magnetic current is the same as electric current is a wrong expression. Really it is not one current they are two currents, one current is composed of North Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams, and the other is composed of South Pole magnets in concentrated streams, and they are running one stream against the other stream in whirling, screw like fashion, and with high speed."

The experimental proof was given by Howard Johnson in his Spintronics treatise:

SPINTRONICS, secret world of magnets, the most thorough work on the double helix theory of the magnetic field (double helix of the telluric currents):

https://freeenergycommunity.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/the-secret-world-of-magnets-spintronics-2006-howard-johnson.pdf







There is a flow of bosons through POSITRON WAVES (LAEVOROTATORY SUBQUARKS), and also a current of bosons through  ELECTRON WAVES (DEXTROROTATORY SUBQUARKS).

The electrogravitational field has magnetic waves AND ALSO gravitational waves.

This is the missing part of the unified field theory.

E.T. Whittaker proved mathematically the existence of the electrogravitational potential, the bidirectional longitudinal waves.

They travel/propagate in double torsion fashion.

No physicist to date has observed this crucial fact: the magnetic wave and the gravitational wave form a single structure, the electrogravitational field. The gravitational potential consists of bosons which flow through dextrorotatory subquarks (electrons), and the electromagnetic potential is made up of bosons which propagate through laevorotatory subquarks (positrons).

This fact then allows us to immediately state that the Earth does not and could not rotate around its own axis: it is stationary.

Since the electrogravitational field is comprised of the two waves in a double torsion form (the gravitational + the electromagnetic waves) THEY HAVE TO ROTATE TOGETHER AT THE SAME RATE, in order for its effects to be observed/recorded.

One (the gravitational field) cannot be stationary, while the other (the magnetic field) rotates at a certain rate: the bidirectional waves which comprise this lattice would be decoupled in an instant.

THEY HAVE TO ROTATE TOGETHER. In the case of heliocentrism, one of them HAS TO BE STATIONARY, WHILE THE OTHER ONE ROTATES.

The effects of the electrogravitational field:

NIPHER EXPERIMENTS:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852840#msg1852840

The relationship between gravitation and the electric field was first observed experimentally by Dr. Francis Nipher. Nipher's conclusion was that sheilded electrostatic fields directly influence the action of gravitation. He further concluded that gravitation and electrical fields are absolutely linked.

BIEFELD-BROWN EFFECT:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1913909#msg1913909

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1852363#msg1852363


Neutron Interferometry: the Aharonov-Bohm effect

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.307

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1109.4887.pdf

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.3627.pdf

http://www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/24/003/24003927.pdf

https://authors.library.caltech.edu/7139/1/LEEprl98.pdf

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900299010384

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 04:07:28 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #466 on: December 24, 2017, 02:28:05 AM »
NEW RADICAL CHRONOLOGY OF HISTORY

The historians are supposed to concern themselves with chronology. However, without a sufficient mathematical education – and in the case of chronological studies, sufficient means fundamental – the historians are forced to evade the solution and even the discussion of the rather complex chronological issues.

Every historical oddness and contradiction becomes carefully concealed from the public attention; in dangerous and slippery places the historians put on a “professional” mien, saying that “everything is really okay” and they shall “give you a full explanation” later on.


Dr. G. Nosovsky

Flat earth theory cannot be true in the context of the official chronology of history. The heliocentrical precessional movement of the Earth argument is all it takes to put in end to the flat earth movement. We are told that Hipparchus proposed that the axis around which the heavens seemed to rotate (shifted gradually, though very slowly). Then, the first astronomer known to have continued Hipparchus's work on precession is Ptolemy in the second century AD. Next, in medieval Islamic astronomy, precession was known based on Ptolemy's Almagest, and by observations that refined the value. Finally, the Renaissance and late Renaissance astronomers (from Kepler to Cassini to Flamsteed) also make pertinent observations relating to the precession of the equinoxes.

A seemingly unbeatable argument which proves that the Earth did orbit the Sun at least in the period 200 BC - 1700 AD, based on the axial precession astronomical observations/recordings listed above.

That is why the flat earth believers who take for granted the official line of history have no chance whatsoever when they are faced with this type of reasoning which, without making use of the new radical chronology of history, is really irrefutable.

Biblical historians have to deal with the fact that there are undeniable proofs that the Epistles attributed to Paul, Peter and James could not possibly have been written during the 1st century AD, not to mention the dating of the Gospels themselves (the 600 page treatise, The Jesus Puzzle by Earl Doherty, as an example). Or with the undeniable contradictions and anachronisms which are to be found in the Gospels and Acts texts. Or with the fact that the legends concerning many pagan deities (Egypt, Babylon, Persia, Greece, India) coincide incredibly well with the main features of the storyline found in the Gospels.

A.T. Fomenko did a disservice to the new chronology field of study by claiming that Christ lived in the 11th century AD. Given the huge success of his History: Fiction or Science? books, and his credentials in advanced mathematics, the researchers in the field, not to mention the readers of his series of publications, found it difficult to separate the obvious and correct mathematical proofs which prove that everything prior to 1,000 AD pertaining to ancient/medieval history was forged and falsified, and the correctness of Fomenko's reconstruction of history in the period 1,000 AD - 1,600 AD, which is plain wrong. By not having understood that the dating of the destruction of both Pompeii and Herculaneum really occurred in the 18th century, or not having taken into account the proofs offered by Dr. Christoph Pfister (the pioneer in the field of the new radical chronology of history) Fomenko was practically forced to invent a fictitious history for the period 1,000 AD - 1,600 AD, which of course included his take on the Nativity/Resurrection, and which affected in a negative manner the faith of many people, especially those living in eastern Europe (orthodox denomination).


Gauss' Easter formula applied to historical dating:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg758652#msg758652 (also includes the Dead Sea scrolls controversies)


The forgery of Dionysius Exiguus's biography, the ultimate proof:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1638504#msg1638504

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1674662#msg1674662

Fomenko and Nosovsky did not take into account the evidence that Exiguus' dating of the Resurrection in 1,095 AD (ecclesiastical/paschal moon, Saturday, March 24, 1,095 AD) was related to the fact that the group of conspirators who made the actual calculations in the Easter table attributed to Exiguus simply got tired of computing backwards through time the calendar conditions and left the final mathematical determination for the year 1,095 AD knowing full well that no one was going to research the actual date until much later in time.

Christ lived and was crucified at Constantinople some 250 years ago, this is the most extraordinary finding of the new radical chronology of history. The legends concerning ALL other pagan deities were invented AFTER the Resurrection, some few decades later (as were the forged Nag Hammadi manuscripts).


Gregorial calendar reform hoax:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1638725#msg1638725

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1674108#msg1674108


Christ in Constantinople:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1641885#msg1641885

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1673763#msg1673763


The Passover contradictions:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1619746#msg1619746



Pompeii and Herculaneum, destroyed by the eruption of the Vesuvius volcano at least after 1,750 AD:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1683424#msg1683424 (five consecutive messages)


The use of the arctangent infinite series at Gizeh:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1834389#msg1834389 (four consecutive messages)


Christoph Pfister archive:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1830487#msg1830487


Stone Age Hoax/Dinosaurs at Pompeii

http://theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1567565#msg1567565

http://theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1413765#msg1413765


Egyptian Pteranodon/Mysteries of the Egyptian Zodiacs:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1412429#msg1412429


Great Wall of China, constructed after 1900 AD:


http://www.breakfornews.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=27892#27892 (not so ancient china 1)

http://www.breakfornews.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=27945#27945 (not so ancient china 2)

http://www.breakfornews.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=27981#27981 (not so ancient china 3)

http://de.geschichte-chronologie.de/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=83:chronological-revolution-part-1&catid=2:2008-11-13-21-58-51&Itemid=90 (section Glorious Chinese History is a Fake) - on google search with eugen gabowitsch a historical analysis )


Mozart, Bach, Euler, B. Franklin:

http://theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1483598#msg1483598

http://theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1483917#msg1483917

http://theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1484659#msg1484659


Edwin Johnson's The Pauline Epistles treatise (absolute proofs that no one in Europe had any knowledge of the Gospels/Epistles prior to 1,500 AD):

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1827111#msg1827111

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1641253#msg1641253


How to calculate the SOLAR precession on a flat earth:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1726000#msg1726000



« Last Edit: April 15, 2018, 02:25:17 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #467 on: December 25, 2017, 11:26:51 AM »
THE BOHREN EXPERIMENT



Craig F. Bohren, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Meteorology at Pennsylvania State University. He is an author of about 100 articles mostly on atmospheric optics, radiative transfer, and light scattering.

"How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?", Am. J. Phys., 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327

Under nonlinear conditions, a particle can absorb more energy than is in the light incident on it.

http://www.cheniere.org/references/bohren/index.htm

See also H. Paul and R. Fischer, (Comment on “How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?’},” Am. J. Phys., 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 327 which replicated the Bohren experiment independently and validated its results (page 5 from the link).

"C.F. Bohren proved that a resonant particle collects and emits up to 18 times as much energy as is input to it by conventional accounting."

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #468 on: December 26, 2017, 02:35:55 AM »
THE BOHREN EXPERIMENT II



(John D. Kraus, Electromagnetics, Fourth Edn., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992)

"A drawing of the huge Poynting energy flow filling all space around the conductors, with almost all of it not intercepted.

From the beginning, Poynting only considered that component of the energy flow that actually enters the circuit. He considered only the "boundary layer" right on the conductor surfaces, so to speak. Heaviside considered that component that enters the circuit, and also uncovered and recognized the gigantic component in the surrounding space that does not enter the circuit but misses it entirely.

Heaviside had absolutely no explanation for the enormous and startling magnitude of this energy flow that "misses the surface charges of the conductors and is wasted". One can see an elementary illustration of the "point intensity" of this Poynting diverged energy flow component.

Most of that available energy flow is not intercepted and thus not diverged into the circuit to power it. The remaining huge component discovered by Heaviside is not shown on Kraus's diagram.

Each of Kraus' contours of energy flow in space, around those power line conductors, shows only that part of the energy flow in space that is being drawn into the circuit. It does not show the remaining huge energy flow that (i) is not intercepted, (ii) does not enter the circuit, and (iii) is wasted. Presently no texts illustrate this Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component.


In the 1880s, Poynting and Heaviside independently (and rather simultaneously) discovered EM energy flow through space.

J. H. Poynting, "On the transfer of energy in the electromagnetic field."
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, Vol. 175, 1884, p. 343-361

O. Heaviside, "Electromagnetic Induction and Its Propagation," The Electrician, 1885, 1886, 1887, and later. A series of 47 sections, published section by section in numerous issues of The Electrician during 1885, 1886, and 1887

With respect to circuits, from the beginning Poynting assumed only that small amount of
EM energy flow that enters the circuit. Here are Poynting's {28} own words:

“This paper describes a hypothesis as to the connexion between current in
conductors and the transfer of electric and magnetic inductions in the
surrounding field. The hypothesis is suggested by the mode of transfer of
energy in the electromagnetic field, resulting from Maxwell’s equations
investigated in a former paper (“Phil. Trans.,” vol. 175, pp. 343-361,
1884). It was there shown that according to Maxwell’s electromagnetic
theory the energy which is dissipated in the circuit is transferred through
the medium, always moving perpendicularly to the plane containing the
lines of electric and magnetic intensity, and that it comes into the
conductor from the surrounding insulator, not flowing along the wire.”


J. H. Poynting, “On the connexion between electric current and the electric and magnetic inductions in the surrounding field,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., Vol. 38, 1984-85, p. 168

As can be seen, Poynting considered only the energy flow actually entering the wire, and
subsequently being dissipated in the circuit. Poynting also got the direction of the flow
wrong, later to be corrected. Hence Poynting never considered the huge EM energy flow component around the circuit that is not diverged, misses the circuit entirely, does not contribute to the energy dissipated by the circuit.

Heaviside's theory was an extension of what Poynting had considered, and he also
corrected Poynting as to the direction of flow. Heaviside was fully aware of the enormity
of the "dark energy" flow missed by Poynting, but had absolutely no explanation as to
where such a startlingly large EM energy flow—pouring from the terminals of every
dipole, generator, or battery—could possibly be coming from. Consequently he was very
cautious in referring to it, usually doing so only obliquely in terms of the angles and
components. In Heaviside's own words:

“It [the energy transfer flow] takes place, in the vicinity of the wire, very
nearly parallel to it, with a slight slope towards the wire… . Prof.
Poynting, on the other hand, holds a different view, representing the
transfer as nearly perpendicular to a wire, i.e., with a slight departure
from the vertical. This difference of a quadrant can, I think, only arise
from what seems to be a misconception on his part as to the nature of the
electric field in the vicinity of a wire supporting electric current. The lines
of electric force are nearly perpendicular to the wire. The departure from
perpendicularity is usually so small that I have sometimes spoken of them
as being perpendicular to it, as they practically are, before I recognized
the great physical importance of the slight departure. It causes the
convergence of energy into the wire.”


O. Heaviside, Electrical Papers, Vol. 2, 1887, p. 94

As can be seen, Heaviside was fully aware that the energy flow diverged into the wire
was only a minuscule fraction of the total. And he was fully aware that the remaining
component was so huge that the energy flow vector remaining—after the divergence of
the Poynting component into the circuit—was still almost parallel to the conductors.
However, he had no explanation at all of where such an enormous and baffling energy
flow could possibly originate.

Had Heaviside strongly stated the enormity of the nondiverged component of the energy
flow, he would have been viciously attacked and scientifically discredited as a perpetual
motion advocate. So his words were measured and cautious, but there is no doubt that he
recognized the enormity of the nondiverged EM energy flow component.

Lorentz Disposed of the Problem Rather than Solving It

Lorentz entered the EM energy flow scene to face the terrible problem so quietly raised
by Heaviside. Lorentz understood the presence of the Poynting component, and also of the Heaviside component, but could find no explanation for the startling, enormous magnitude of the EM energy pouring out of the terminals of the power source (pouring from the source dipole) if the Heaviside component was accounted. Had he developed and retained this enormous dark energy flow component, even the Lorentz would have been castigated as a perpetual motion advocate.

Unable to solve the dark energy flow problem by any rational means, Lorentz found a
clever way to avoid it. He reasoned that the nondiverged Heaviside component was
"physically insignificant" (his term) because it did not even enter the circuit. Since it did
nothing, he reasoned that it could just be discarded.

So Lorentz simply integrated the entire energy flow vector (the vector representing
the sum of both the Heaviside nondiverged component and the Poynting diverged
component) around an assumed closed surface enclosing any volume of interest. A priori
this mathematical procedure discards the dark Heaviside energy flow component because
of its nondivergence. It retains only the intercepted Poynting diverged component that
enters the circuit.

A century later, electrodynamicists are still happily avoiding the dark energy flow
problem by continuing to use the Lorentz integration procedure to dispose of all but
the Poynting component that enters the circuit and is then dissipated by the circuit. As a
result, the "Poynting energy flow" has come to be loosely regarded as "the" entire EM
energy flow, though electrodynamicists find it necessary to give stringent warnings about
it. E.g., Panofsky and Phillips state it this way:

"…only the entire surface integral of N [their notation for the Poynting
vector] contributes to the energy balance. Paradoxical results may be
obtained if one tries to identify the Poynting vector with the energy flow
per unit area at any point."

W. K. H. Panofsky and M. Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1962, 2nd edition, p. 181

Most electrodynamicists note the freedom to add a vector—few call it an energy flow
vector, though that is the type of vector being discussed, and one must add apples to
apples—which has zero divergence. Jones states:

"It is possible to introduce the Poynting vector S, defined by S = E×H,
and regard it as the intensity of energy flow at a point. This procedure is
open to criticism since we could add to S any vector whose divergence is
zero without affecting [the basic integration procedure's result]."

D. S. Jones, The Theory of Electromagnetism, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1964, p. 52

Jackson says it even more plainly, and also uses Lorentz's "no physical significance" argument for disposing of any energy flow vector with a zero divergence.

Quoting:

"...the Poynting vector is arbitrary to the extent that the curl of any vector
field can be added to it. Such an added term can, however, have no
physical consequences."

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Edn., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975, p. 237

Needless to say, any energy flow vector which is the curl of a vector field will have zero
divergence, by elementary vector algebra. In short, to be pertinent at all, it must be an
energy flow vector (since energy flow is what S = E×H is all about. Since the curl of any vector has no divergence a priori, then any energy flow vector that is a curl of a vector field will be part of the Heaviside dark energy flow component, rather than part of the Poynting energy flow component. It will also be discarded by Lorentz's closed surface
integration.

Jackson errs in assuming such a divergence free vector (energy flow) can have no
physical consequences. That is true so long as one does not intercept and diverge—and
utilize—some of the otherwise nondiverged energy flow. If one inserts intercepting
charges into that nondiverged energy flow component, the charges will immediately
diverge some of the formerly nondiverged energy flow around them and hence "collect
additional energy". "



[The Lorentz concept of integrating the Poynting vector around a closed cylindrical surface surrounding a volumetric element. This is the procedure which arbitrarily selects only a small diverged component of the energy flow associated with a circuit—specifically, the small Poynting component being diverged into the circuit to power it—and then treats that tiny component as the "entire" energy flow. Thereby Lorentz arbitrarily discarded all the extra huge Heaviside curled energy transport component which is usually not diverged into the circuit conductors at all, does not interact with anything locally, and is not used.]

"The total energy flow in space surrounding the conductors has two components as follows:

1) A tiny Poynting component of the energy flow directly along the surface of the
conductors strikes the surface charges and is diverged (deviated) into the conductors to power the circuit.

2) The huge nondiverted Heaviside component filling all space around the circuit, misses the circuit entirely.

The Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component was arbitrarily discarded by H.A. Lorentz, who integrated the energy flow vector itself around a closed surface enclosing any volumetric element of interest. This discards any nondiverted (nondiverged) energy flow components, regardless of how large, and retains only the diverted (diverged) component, regardless of how small.

Effectively Lorentz arbitrarily changed the energy flow vector into its diverted flow component vector—a fundamental non sequitur. In one stroke he discarded the bothersome Heaviside component, reasoning that it was "physically insignificant" because—in single pass circuits—it does not enter the circuit and power it.

This is rather like arguing that all the wind on the ocean that does not strike the sails of a
single sailboat, is "physically insignificant." A moment's reflection shows that the "insignificant" remaining wind can power a large number of additional sailing vessels. A very large amount of energy can be extracted and used to do work, if that "physically insignificant" wind is intercepted by additional sails.

Suppose Lorentz had not arbitrarily discarded the huge Heaviside energy flow component
surrounding the circuit and not contributing to its power. In that case, electrodynamicists in the 1880s would have been confronted with the dilemma of explaining where such an enormous flow of energy—pouring forth out of the terminals of every generator and battery—could possibly have come from.

To avoid strong attack and suppression from the scientific community on grounds of
advocating perpetual motion and violation of energy conservation, in the 1880s there was no other choice but to discard the Heaviside component on some pretext. So Lorentz simply discarded the vexing component. He could not solve the problem so he got rid of it.

Lorentz further reduced the already seriously reduced symmetrized Heaviside equations, in order to specifically eliminate the newly discovered giant Heaviside curled EM energy flow that – unknown to our present electrical engineers – accompanies every Poynting energy flow component (which is diverged into the circuit to power it), but is itself (the curled component) not diverged and thus is just wasted because it normally does not interact.

Lorentz altered the actually-used energy flow vector by throwing away that giant Heaviside component quite arbitrarily. Thus the Heaviside giant curled EM energy flow component is no longer accounted or even recognized in electrical engineering, but it still physically accompanies every accounted Poynting energy flow component in every EM system or circuit.


Heaviside and Poynting independently discovered EM energy flow theory.  Poynting conceived only that small component of the energy flow which enters the conductors.  On the other hand, Heaviside recognized that all space around the circuit's conductors was filled with EM energy flow.  A small "boundary layer sheath" component of this energy flowing outside the circuit moves right along the surface of the wires, where it strikes the surface charges and is diverged into the circuit.  This small Poynting energy flow component enters the circuit and provides the energy subsequently dissipated in the circuit's loads and losses.

However, the "sheath layer" Poynting component is only a tiny fraction of the truly enormous energy flow pouring out of the generator or battery terminals and flowing through surrounding space, with most of it missing the circuit entirely.

Lorentz considered this huge nondiverged Heaviside flow component "physically insignificant" (his term) and logically felt free to neglect it because it did not enter the circuit and did not contribute to powering the loads and losses.  However, in aether theory  any change in spatial energy density represents a curvature of the aether (potentials/Whittaker longitudinal waves), hence produces gravitational effects.

Bohren's experiment collects 18 times more energy from the usually nondiverged Heaviside component, just by resonating the charge and thereby sweeping out a greater geometrical reaction cross section than the static charge that is used to calculate the Poynting flow component.  It follows that "the" field and "the" potential input to the intercepting charge have far more energy "in the vicinity of" an interacting point static charge and of a unit dipole than what is accounted for in the conventional EM model where the magnitudes of the fields and potentials are erroneously taken as being the magnitudes of the energy diverted from them by a unit point static charge.  This enormous extra energy, however, does not participate in the interaction and is the "dark energy" component recognized by Heaviside and then erroneously discarded by Lorentz."


" Heaviside himself recognized the gravitational implications of his extra component of energy flow, which is in closed circular loops. Beneath the floorboards of his little garret apartment, years after his death, handwritten papers were found where Heaviside used this component for a unified EM approach to gravitation.

See E. R. Laithwaite, “Oliver Heaviside – establishment shaker,” Electrical Review,
211(16), Nov. 12, 1982, p. 44-45.

Laithwaite felt that Heaviside’s postulation that a flux of gravitational energy combines with the (ExH) electromagnetic energy flux, could shake the foundations of physics.

Quoting from Laithwaite: “Heaviside had originally written the energy flow as S = (ExH) + G, where G is a circuital flux. Poynting had only written S = (ExH). Taking p to be the density of matter and e the intensity of a gravitational force, Heaviside found that the circuital flux G can be expressed as pu + ce, where u represents the velocity of p and c is a constant.”


To prove the existence of the Heaviside flow, Bohren performed the experiment where the intercepting charges in the circuit are in resonance, and thus "sweep out" a larger geometrical cross section of interception of the impinging energy flow. These charges do sweep beyond the static unit charge cross section conventionally assumed in the definitions of field intensity (e.g., of the fields E and H in the Poynting vector S in S = (E x H). If the defining unit point charges are in resonance and sweep out a greater cross section, then the assumed Poynting vector S, for the static case, changes in magnitude by some ratio k for the resonant case to the vector SR, so now SR = k1E x k2H = k3(E x H). Since k3 is just the ratio of the actual geometrical cross section swept out by the charge to the standard geometrical cross section swept out by the static charge, then for a static charge k3 = 1.0, and for a resonant charge k3 >1.0. Hence the Bohren experiment, with k3 = 18 or so, produces 18 times as much collected (Poynting) energy "out" as we erroneously think we input by normal calculations ignoring the input Heaviside nondiverged component."



« Last Edit: December 26, 2017, 02:41:36 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #469 on: December 27, 2017, 11:06:21 AM »
BIRKELAND CURRENTS II



"Plasma in space usually appears as a cloud of partially charged gas and dust.

When clouds are in motion they become ionized. Clouds in relative motion induce electric currents within them. The currents generate magnetic fields that confine the plasma into coherent filaments known as Birkeland currents.


The charged particles in the currents spiral along the resulting magnetic fields, appearing as electrical vortices. The forces between these spinning Birkeland currents pull them close together and wind them around each other into “plasma ropes”.

Birkeland currents squeeze galactic plasma into thin filaments that remain collimated over great distances.

Light-years-long jets and so-called “radio lobes” can extend for many times a galaxy’s diameter, for example. A circuit is induced within any one galaxy that causes diffuse electric charge to flow from the galactic poles toward the galaxy’s equatorial plane and spiral into its nucleus.

The forces exerted by electrified plasma contained in the twisting filaments of Birkeland currents dominate the Universe. They circulate in a cosmic circuit that flows into our field of view and then out into the void with electromagnetic attraction between them that is billions of times more intense than gravity."



Braided current sheets glow softly in visible and infrared light along the Cygnus Loop of the Veil Nebula. Image credit: W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit (Johns Hopkins University / NASA)



Twisted current filaments in the Double Helix Nebula near the center of the Milky Way, in infrared light. Image credit: NASA/JPL – CalTech/UCLA



“An incredible network of filamentary structures” seen in a cloud of cold gas in the constellation of the Southern Cross. The ESA report dated 2 October 2009. “That a dark, cool area such as this would be bustling with activity, was unexpected. But the images reveal a surprising amount of turmoil: the interstellar material is condensing into continuous and interconnected filaments glowing from the light emitted by new-born stars at various stages of development.”


“That parallel currents attract each other was known already at the times of Ampere. It is easy to understand that in a plasma, currents should have a tendency to collect to filaments. In 1934, it was explicitly stated by Bennett that this should lead to the formation of a pinch. The problem which led him to the discovery was that the magnetic storm producing medium (solar wind with present terminology) was not flowing out uniformly from the Sun. Hence, it was a problem in cosmic physics which led to the introduction of the pinch effect…

However, to most astrophysicists it is an unknown phenomenon. Indeed, important fields of research, e.g., the treatment of the state in interstellar regions, including the formation of stars, are still based on a neglect of Bennett’s discovery more than half a century ago… present-day students in astrophysics hear nothing about it.”

Dr. Hannes Alfven, Nobel prize laureate

“In conclusion, it seems that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of theoretical astrophysicists who have gotten their education from the listed textbooks. The multibillion dollar space data from astronomical telescopes should be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics, circuit theory, and, of course, modern plasma physics. More than 99 percent of the Universe consists of plasma, and the ratio between electromagnetic and gravitational forces is 1039.”

—H. Alfvén, NASA Conference Publication 2469, 1986, p. 16

"Space is filled with a network of currents which transfer energy and momentum over large or very large distances. The currents often pinch to filamentary or surface currents. The latter are likely to give space, as also interstellar and intergalactic space, a cellular structure.”

—Hannes Alfvén


Mercury Birkeland currents

https://web.archive.org/web/20120128023316/https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/messenger/multimedia/magnetic_tornadoes.html

Mars plasma flux transfer event

The slow destruction of the planet’s atmosphere was caused by huge rope-like tendrils of magnetic rotations, scientists say, as they reveal data that showed that Mars has huge aurora akin to the Earth’s northern lights.

... Instruments on board the Maven craft found that ions were escaping from the planet at a much quicker rate during solar bursts, or coronal mass ejections. Watching one such event in March, it saw huge magnetic rotations that were flying out into space — and that ions were spewing out into space along those huge magnetic ropes.

Nasa Mars announcement: Red Planet’s atmosphere was blown away by huge bursts of gas from the Sun, scientists suggest.

Plasma Flux Transfer Events between Saturn and the Sun

A twisted magnetic field structure, previously never seen before at Saturn, has now been detected for the first time ... When the Sun’s magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field (the magnetosphere), a complex process occurs called magnetic reconnection which can twist the field into a helical shape. These twisted helically structured magnetic fields are called flux ropes or “flux transfer events” (FTEs) and are observed at Earth and even more commonly at Mercury ...

https://web.archive.org/web/20180512121552/https://www.ucl.ac.uk/mathematical-physical-sciences/images/news/Saturn_3D_final6.jpg



Nebula Birkeland currents

A new image of the (Mon R2) nebula confirms that it is filamentary in nature, leading to the conclusion that Birkeland currents are present. The filaments that spiral through and away from Mon R2 are named after Kristian Birkeland, who first proposed their existence in the late 1800s. Those currents form scalable plasma structures that can transmit electric power all around the galaxy.

Gas cannot be heated until it gives off intense radiation (extreme ultraviolet and X-rays) without electrical input. Waves of ionized particles detected by ESA comprise the flow of electric charge, so Birkeland currents can form, causing electromagnetic Bennett pinches (z-pinches) that can squeeze plasma with such force that it rapidly compresses. Electric charge flowing into those regions can then force the plasma to erupt in a discharge. Nebulae are plasma formations behaving as the laws of electric discharges and circuits dictate.

No further study is required when one considers the Electric Star hypothesis. Rather than mechanical action (heated gas), Mon R2’s radiation is due to electric currents powering its interior stars. Electrical sheaths (double layers) that are normally invisible receive greater input from galactic Birkeland currents in which they are immersed, entering the “glow discharge” state.

In conclusion, increased flux density pulls matter from the surrounding space (and other stars) into Birkeland current filaments that electrically ignite nebular gasses in Mon R2.



Filaments are revealed in this new image of Mon R2. Credit: ESA/Herschel/PACS/SPIRE/HOBYS Key Programme consortium


This beautiful example of a “planetary nebula” shows the classic features of a plasma z-pinch. The current density in the Birkeland current filaments is sufficient to cause the plasma to enter “glow mode.” The polar “circuit” is composed of concentric cylinders of parallel Birkeland current filaments. The polar double layers are regions of high electric field and radio “noise.” The cylinders pinch down at the star in the characteristic hourglass shape.



Planetary nebula M2-9. Credit: B. Balick (U. of Washington) and NASA.



Cosmic Tornado HH49/50 “Tornado” is the description of this jet blasting down from the top of this Spitzer Space Telescope image. Credit: J. Bally (Univ. of Colorado) et al., JPL-Caltech, NASA. Inset: HH34 is another example where the plasma “beading” is clearly visible in the stellar jet. Credit: ESO.

“these [magnetohydrodynamic] theories had initially very little contact with experimental plasma physics, and all the awkward and complicated phenomena which had been treated in the study of discharges in gases were simply neglected…

The cosmical plasma physics of today is far less advanced than the thermonuclear research physics. It is to some extent the playground of theoreticians who have never seen a plasma in a laboratory. Many of them still believe in formulae which we know from laboratory experiments to be wrong. The astrophysical correspondence to the thermonuclear crisis has not yet come.

I think it is evident now that in certain respects the first approach to the physics of cosmical plasmas has been a failure. It turns out that in several important cases this approach has not given even a first approximation to truth but led into dead-end streets from which we now have to turn back.”

Dr. Hannes Alfven

"Glowing, braided filaments are sometimes visible in “jets” that blast out from stars and some galaxies. Those filaments are called Birkeland currents, and they are the visible portion of enormous electric circuits that form a large-scale structure in the Universe. The circuits generate magnetic fields that can be mapped, so the helical shape characteristic of Birkeland currents is known, since it can be seen.

Gases obey Newtonian laws of kinetic motion with molecules bumping into each other or accelerated by "shock waves" imparted by other particles. Plasma, on the other hand, behaves according to the laws of electricity. Stars are born within twisting Birkeland currents that flow around a circuit through the galaxy. The z-pinch effect squeezes plasma inside those filaments, igniting stars and forming toroids of electricity around stellar equators.

The long-range (1/r) electromagnetic interaction between pairs of intergalactic current filaments, known as “Birkeland currents,” attracts matter from a vast volume of space. Where two filaments intersect, they form a spiral galaxy through the powerful electromagnetic “Z-pinch” effect. This concept has been tested in the lab and by ‘particle-in-cell’ supercomputer simulations. It shows that the extremely weak and limited-range (1/r2) force of gravity has negligible effect in forming a spiral galaxy."





Milky Way filament G64. Credit: ESA/Herschel/PACS/SPIRE/Ke Wang et al. 2015.

Birkeland clusters of galaxies

New observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have revealed the intricate structure of the galaxy NGC 4696 in greater detail than ever before. The elliptical galaxy is a beautiful cosmic oddity with a bright core wrapped in system of dark, swirling, thread-like filaments.

NGC 4696 is a member of the Centaurus galaxy cluster, a swarm of hundreds of galaxies all sitting together ... These filaments knit together and spiral inwards towards the centre of NGC 4696, connecting the galaxy's constituent gas to its core.




« Last Edit: July 11, 2018, 04:56:02 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #470 on: January 07, 2018, 01:57:31 AM »
SACRED CUBIT ZETA FUNCTION

"The zeta function is probably the most challenging and mysterious object of modern mathematics, in spite of its utter simplicity."

"We may – paraphrasing the famous sentence of George Orwell – say that 'all mathematics is beautiful, yet some is more beautiful than the other'. But the most beautiful in all mathematics is the zeta function. There is no doubt about it."

"A variety of evidence suggests that underlying Riemann's zeta function is some unknown classical, mechanical system whose trajectories are chaotic and without [time-reversal] symmetry, with the property that, when quantised, its allowed energies are the Riemann zeros. These connections between the seemingly disparate worlds of quantum mechanics and number theory are tantalising."

Quantum mechanics and prime numbers:

https://www.ias.edu/ideas/2013/primes-random-matrices

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~matilde/GeomPhysPrimes.pdf

https://medium.com/@JorgenVeisdal/the-riemann-hypothesis-explained-fa01c1f75d3f


How B. Riemann applied the saddle-point method to obtain the asymptotic form of the correction terms:

https://michaelberryphysics.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/berry483.pdf

Thus, almost casually, without fanfare, in an achievement unmatched from his day to ours, Riemann established the leading-order correction to the main sum in, so that:

The Riemann-Siegel formula:




The Riemann zeros are related to each other, the computer assisted proof published by Dr. Yuri Matiyasevich (solved Hilbert’s tenth problem):

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.764.208&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The finite Dirichlet series from the title are defined by the condition that they vanish at as many initial zeroes of the zeta function as possible. It turned out that such series can produce extremely good approximations to the values of Riemann’s zeta function inside the critical strip. In addition, the coefficients of these series have remarkable number theoretical properties discovered in large scale high accuracy numerical experiments.

The calculations were performed with very high precision of over ten thousand decimal places.

We want to underline the necessity for performing computations with very high accuracy, which was crucial in discovering the patterns presented here, that would not be detected otherwise. The calculations performed were costly, of order of 200,000 CPU hours, which were made possible by collaborative work of mathematicians, computer scientists, programmers and support engineers.

http://www.academia.edu/19447024/An_artless_method_for_calculating_approximate_values_of_zeros_of_Riemanns_zeta_function

http://www.mpim-bonn.mpg.de/preblob/5368





Using the Riemann-Siegel formula to approximate the first two zeros:








http://rgmia.org/papers/v9n2/rs-rgmia.pdf

APPROXIMATION OF THE SUM OF RECIPROCAL OF IMAGINARY PARTS OF ZETA ZEROS

http://ijmcs.future-in-tech.net/9.1/R--GhusayniRH.pdf


S. Ramanujan’s highly composite numbers version of the Riemann hypothesis:

http://math.univ-lyon1.fr/~nicolas/NicolasSondowRRHCNRHconm.pdf

http://math.univ-lyon1.fr/~nicolas/ramanujanNR.pdf

S. Ramanujan: Highly Composite Numbers

http://ramanujan.sirinudi.org/Volumes/published/ram15.pdf

S. Ramanujan, Collected Papers:

http://www.imsc.res.in/~rao/ramanujan/collectedindex.html

Ramanujan already discovered the zeta functional equation in a much different way than that employed by B. Riemann:




https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0801/0801.4072.pdf

A Necessary Condition for the Existence of the Nontrivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

(a very interesting paper which shows that B. Riemann must have followed a similar kind of argument, using the newly discovered zeta functional equation, to reach the conclusion that all the nontrivial zeros are all located on the ½ line)


The sacred cubit formula for the right triangle, first published in this thread:







https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1855591#msg1855591 (Quantum Riemann’s Zeta Function, parts I – XII, twelve consecutive messages)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1886020#msg1886020 (part XIII)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1941894#msg1941894 (part XIV)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1950765#msg1950765 (parts XV – XVI, two consecutive messages)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1953274#msg1953274 (parts XVII – XVIII, two consecutive messages)


« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 04:20:41 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #471 on: January 07, 2018, 05:04:52 AM »
SACRED CUBIT ZETA FUNCTION II

The smallest particle, called the tail of a boson, features TWO Riemann zeta functions.

A boson is a cavity resonator.

In the center of the boson we have the two apexes (called parabindu) which rotate as follows:

http://www.eaglespiritministry.com/pd/howto/images/mt_01.gif

One is a shadow of the other.

The virtual (thought-like) pyramid is facing downwards: this is called the aparabindu particle in vedic physics. It produces aether, the medium needed for the sound to propagate.

The upward facing pyramid (also called aparabindu; imagination) produces sound, which activates the shadow/thought pyramid.

“The universe is more like a giant thought than a giant machine and the substance of the great thought is consciousness which pervades all space.”
Sir James Jeans

It is this interplay between the two truncated pyramids together with their apexes which is the source of the colossal energy in a boson.

A subquark has some fourteen billion bosons and again two truncated pyramids with two apexes which provide the same quantum interplay to create its two vortices.

Since now the distance between the truncated pyramids (frustums) and the apexes is greater, the amount of energy contained in a subquark will be smaller than in a single boson.

In much the same way, a quark (three subquarks), a meson (six subquarks), a baryon (nine subquarks), a neutron or a proton (eighteen subquarks) will also highlight the same interaction using the two truncated pyramids and their apexes. As the distance between the frustum and the apex increases, the total energy contained in the particle will be of less magnitude.

Each tail of a boson, boson, antiboson, subquark, quark, meson, baryon, neutron, proton, electron (dextrorotatory subquark) will exhibit the TWO RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTIONS interchange.

That is why the energy levels of atoms feature the random matrix model which is based the average spacing between consecutive zeros of the zeta function.



The correlation between the arrangement of the Riemann zeroes and the energy levels of quantum chaotic systems means that the zeta function can describe the very intricate quantum physics on an infinitesimal level.

How then could this extraordinary mathematical relationship arise out of a totally random process described by the big bang theory/stellar evolution hypotheses?

Moreover, we have a precise equation which relates the zeros of the zeta function to prime numbers:




The striking similarities between the Riemann zeros and the quantum energy levels of classically chaotic systems:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1859126#msg1859126


Five elements of the Gizeh pyramid:

26.7
53.4
80
136.1
534

Applying the five elements proportions to the sacred cubit distance:

63.636363
16.1773
9.5445
6.36363
3.1815

Rotate a model of the Gizeh pyramid clockwise by 90 degrees.

To the right, we have another Gizeh pyramid (the shadow of the first pyramid), which is rotated anticlockwise by 90 degrees, the two pyramid frustums will be facing each other.

Total distance from one subterranean chamber to the other: 534 units.

In the center we have the two apexes of the pyramids forming a merkabah geometrical figure.

Two sothic triangles embed each of the two apexes: the height of the triangle will measure exactly 14.134725 units (the value of the first zero of Riemann's zeta function).

Two other sothic triangles will embed the top portion of the frustums of the two pyramids, again the height of these triangles will measure 14.134725 units.

The distance separating the two sets of triangles, located to the left of the center of the merkabah, will measure exactly 63.6363... units (the sacred cubit distance).

In the same manner the distance separating the two sets of triangles located to the right of the center of the merkabah will also measure 63.6363... units.




For the past 150 years, no other mathematician or physicist has paid any attention to the SECOND zeta function featured in the graph above.


For the first sacred cubit distance, to the left of the merkabah, we have TWO ZETA FUNCTIONS: one is travelling to the left, starting from the tip of the sothic triangle which embeds the left part of the apex, all the way to the frustum of the left truncated pyramid.

The second zeta function will start from the tip of the sothic triangle which embeds the frustum of the pyramid located to the left, and travel all the way to the tip of the sothic triangle which is embedding the left part of the apex.

THE HEIGHT OF THE TWO SOTHIC TRIANGLES MEASURES 14.134725..., which is the value of the first zero of the zeta function.

From the left to the right, the first wave of the zeta function will include the zeros from 14.134725 to 77.145.

From right to left, the second wave of the zeta function will include the zeros from 14.134725 to 77.145 pointing the other way.


On the right side of the merkabah we will have the same kind of interplay between the frustum and the apex, featuring again two zeta functions.


That is, each of the two sacred distances will include TWO Riemann zeta functions waves.

14.134725 + 63.6363 = 77.7647

77.7647 + 63.6363 = 141.3947

141.3947 + 63.6363 = 205.0247

205.0245 + 63.6363 = 268.6547

268.6547 + 63.6363 = 332.2847


First two pairs of waves (from the apex facing to the right to the frustum oriented to the right):

First wave to the left: 77.7647 to 14.134725
First wave to the right: 14.134725 to 77.7647

Second wave to the left: 141.3947 to 77.7647
Second wave to the right: 77.7647 to 141.3947 and so on.


Second two pairs of waves (from the apex facing to the right to the frustum oriented to the left):

First wave to the right: 14.134725 to 77.7647
First wave to the left: 77.7647 to 14.134725

Second wave to the right: 77.7647 to 141.3947
Second wave to the left: 141.3947 to 77.7647 and so on.


It is much more important to understand and to decipher the mathematical relationship between the zeros of the zeta function than to find out if the Riemann hypothesis is true.

The truth of the  Riemann hypothesis is a consequence of first gaining a definite knowledge of the zeros of the zeta function:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1859799#msg1859799

The sacred cubit fractal (dividing the critical line into 63.6363... segments, and further using the five elements proportions) is the hidden template of the zeta function.

63.636363
16.1773
9.5445
6.36363
3.1815

9.5445 - 6.36363 = 6.36363 - 3.1815 = 3.1815

3.1815
0.80886
0.477225
0.31815
0.159075

(continued here: https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1950765#msg1950765 )


A list of the zeros featured on the first run of the two zeta functions:

     14.134725142
     21.022039639
     25.010857580
     30.424876126
     32.935061588
     37.586178159
     40.918719012
     43.327073281
     48.005150881
     49.773832478
     52.970321478
     56.446247697
     59.347044003
     60.831778525
     65.112544048
     67.079810529
     69.546401711
     72.067157674
     75.704690699
     77.144840069


Now, we subdivide the sacred cubit distance using the five element fractal, for the first zeta function wave traveling towards the left, see:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1950765#msg1950765

14.1347 +

3.1815  = 17.3162 *
6.363    = 20.4947 *
9.545    = 23.68 *
16.1773 = 30.312 *
2.373    = 32.685 *
4.746    = 35.058
7.1185  = 37.43 } *
12.066  = 42.378 }
1.77      = 44.148 *
3.54     = 45.92 * midpoint
5.309   = 47.687 *
{8.998   = 51.376
{1.319   = 52.695
2.64     = 54.02 *
3.96     = 55.33
6.7106 = 58.086 *
0.984  = 59.07 *
1.968  = 60.05
2.95   = 61.03 *
5.0045 = 63.1 }
0.734  = 63.8 }
1.468  = 64.56 }
2.2     = 65.3 }
3.73   = 66.8 }
1.64   = 68.46 }
2.783  = 69.6
1.224  = 70.83
2.07   = 71.67 *
1.548  = 73.22
1.154  = 74.38 *
0.861  = 75.24
0.692  = 75.93
0.4661 = 76.4
0.3475 = 76.745
0.26   = 77


Now, the subdivision for the SECOND wave propagating toward the right:

14.1347 + 63.63 = 77.7647

77.7647 -

3.1815 = 74.58 *
6.363  = 71.4 *
9.545  = 68.22 * }
16.173 = 61.587 * }
2.373  = 59.2 *
4.746  = 56.84 *
7.1185 = 54.469 * }
12.066 = 49.52 }
1.77  = 47.75 *
3.54 = 45.98 * midpoint
5.309 = 44.2 *
8.998 = 40.52 }
1.319 = 39.2 }
2.64  = 37.88 }
3.96  = 36.56 *
6.7106 = 33.8
0.984  = 32.8 *
1.968  = 31.84
2.95  = 30.86 *
5.0045 = 28.81
0.734 = 28.07
1.468 = 27.34
2.2 = 26.61
3.73 = 25.08
1.64 = 23.43 *
2.783 = 22.23
1.224  = 21.07
2.07  = 20.22 *
1.548 = 18.67
1.154 = 17.52 *
0.861 = 16.66
0.692 = 15.97
0.4661 = 15.5
0.3475 = 15.15
0.26 = 14.9


THE VALUES MARKED WITH A STAR (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE MIDPOINT) ARE ABOUT THE SAME FOR BOTH SUBDIVISIONS.

THIS IS WHERE THE ZETA ZEROS WILL LIE, AT THE COMMON VALUES OF THE TWO SUBDIVISIONS OF THE SACRED CUBIT DISTANCE.

The values marked with a brace need further subdivisions: we can check that there are further zeros there (and also eliminate the midpoint value) using the both the average spacing of the zeta zeros and the total number of zeta zeros in a certain segment formulas.

As an example:

68.22 - 1.68632 = 66.534
66.534 - 1.2576 = 65.2764 *

A match for the value 65.3 from the other subdivision.

Once we know where the zeta zeros are located we can then further subdivide the sacred cubit distances to get a better estimate, since again the equal values of the two subdivisions will provide the exact point where the zeta zero is placed.


It is the points where the two subdivisions have approximately equal values that form the set of zeta zeros.

That is, the law of five elements of proportions applied to the sacred cubit distance will reveal the values of the zeta zeros.



We use the same logic and equations for the SECOND segment, and so on.

     79.337375020
     82.910380854
     84.735492981
     87.425274613
     88.809111208

14.134725 + 63.6363 + 63.63636 = 141.3947


See: https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1950822#msg1950822


As an example:

77.7647 +

we subdivide the interval 77.7647 + 3.1815

3.1815
0.80886
0.477225
0.31815
0.159075

77.7647 +

0.477225 = 78.242
0.80886 = 78.57

3.1815 - 0.80886 = 2.3726

2.3726
0.60322
0.3559
0.23726
0.11863

78.57 +

0.3559 = 78.926
0.60322 = 79.1732 *

77.7647 +

3.1815 = 80.9462
0.80886 = 81.755
0.60322 = 82.36 *
6.3636 = 84.127
0.80886 = 84.936 *
9.545 = 87.31 *
1.68632 = 88.996 *


Starting from the other end (141.3947), and succesively substracting to reach the 88.71 value:

88.71 * -

1.64 = 87.06 *
2.703 = 85.86
1.224 = 84.7 *
2.07 = 83.85
1.548 = 82.3 *
1.154 = 81.15
0.861 = 80.29
0.692 = 79.6

79.6 -

0.4661 = 79.13 *

79.13 * -

0.3475 = 78.78

78.78 -

0.26 = 78.53

Subdividing the 1.02 to 0.26 interval:

0.76
0.1932
0.114
0.076
0.038

78.53 -

0.1932 = 78.3368

Subdividing the 1.02 interval:

1.02
0.2593 (=0.26)
0.153
0.102
0.051

78.78 -

0.153 = 78.627


The values of 79.1732 and 79.13 form the correct subdivision which is closest to the zeta zero figure of 79.337.


Let us suppose now that for the second segment (77.7647 to 141.3947) we cannot find a similar value for the two subdivisions for the zeta zero 134.75.

That would mean, however, that a similar value could not be found for the second zeta wave, which is oriented to the left, which would be impossible since the first zeta function, pointing to the right, already used a figure very close to that value:

For the zeta zero 21.022

14.1347 + 6.36363 = 20.4977

Adding 0.477 to 6.3636  we get 20.975.

Substracting 2.07 from the other subdivision, we get 135.03.

141.3947 - 135.03 = 6.3647

Adding 0.31815 to 6.3647 we get 134.71.


The subdivision next to the point 14.134725 + 6.3636 was already used at the very start, therefore the subdivision for the second segment must produce an approximately equal value for the 134.75 zeta zero, since we arrive again at the same point of subdivision, located next to 6.3636.

The same logic would apply for any consecutive 14.134725 + nx100sc and 14.134725 + (n+1)x100sc segments.

We can also form a whole segment connecting all of the subdivided segments (each of 14.134725 + nx100sc units in length), that is, the first wave starting to the left, 14.134725 to 14.134725 + nx100sc, and the second wave pointing to the right from 14.134725 + nx100sc to 14.134725.


This is the great advantage of having TWO SETS OF SUBDIVISIONS, COMPARING THE APPROXIMATELY EQUAL VALUES, AND EQUATING THOSE WITH THE VALUES OF THE ZETA ZEROS.


To check and see that indeed the approximate equal values of the two subdivisions always lead to the correct zeta zeros, we can add the sum of the reciprocals of the approximately equal values of the subdivisions:


http://rgmia.org/papers/v9n2/rs-rgmia.pdf

APPROXIMATION OF THE SUM OF RECIPROCAL OF IMAGINARY PARTS OF ZETA ZEROS

http://ijmcs.future-in-tech.net/9.1/R--GhusayniRH.pdf

The sum for the reciprocal values of the imaginary parts of the zeta zeros is O(log2t).

The values of the reciprocal values are easy to get from the subdivision process itself.

Let T1 = 63.636363

The first subdivision:

T1
T1 x 0.025424 x 10
3T1/20
T1/10
T1/20

Second subdivision:

T1 - T1 x 0.025424 x 10 = T1(1 - 10x0.025424)
T1(1 - 10x0.025424)x(0.25424x10)
3T1(1 - 10x0.025424)/20
T1(1 - 10x0.025424)/10
T1(1 - 10x0.025424)/20

For the T1/20 segment:

T1/20
T1x0.025424/20
3T1/400
T1/200
T1/400

And so on (1 sacred inch = 0.025424...; 1 sacred cubit = 25 sacred inches)


In order to get an even better understanding of the entire process of subdivision, we would need to know the exact value of the sacred cubit distance of the smallest particle.

14/22 = 0.63636363...

2/pi = 0.636619722...

(phi/4)1/2 = 0.63601...

286.1/450 = 0.6357777...

14.134725 x 45 = 636.062625....

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1573684#msg1573684

Let us remember also (see the previous message) that Dr. Yuri Matiyasevich proved that zeros of the zeta function examined by him are all related to each other. A change in the subdivision process deviating from the sacred cubit distances would mean that all of the previous values would have to be changed as well; however, the previous values were obtained exactly according to the law of proportion of the five elements.

The Lehmer phenomenon, a pair of zeros which are extremely close, is related to the close proximity of some of the values of the two subdivisions of the 63.6363... segment: very close values right from the first level of the subdivision process such as 111.317 and 111.38.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1950822#msg1950822


List of Riemann zeta function zeros:

https://web.archive.org/web/20170508002056/http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/zeta_tables/zeros1

It is most important to gain an understanding of the hidden pattern of these zeta zeros, exactly how they relate to each other, to discover that these zeros are based on a very precise template of sacred cubit subdivisions (sacred cubit fractal). This hidden pattern provides the best way to understand the full meaning of the Riemann hypothesis.

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 04:24:19 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #472 on: January 08, 2018, 06:34:47 AM »
SACRED CUBIT ZETA FUNCTION III

http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2010/Cambridge/CFH/CFH-22.pdf

Continuum versus Quantum Fields Viewed Through a Scale Invariant Model of Statistical Mechanics

The connection between the Dirac sea, Casimir effect, ether field and Riemann's zeta function.


In fact, physicists are now calling the mysterious quantum system behind the Riemann hypothesis and the spacings of the distribution of the zeta zeros, the riemannium.

https://thespectrumofriemannium.wordpress.com/tag/casimir-effect/


https://arxiv.org/pdf/math-ph/0303014.pdf

Jost function, prime numbers and Riemann zeta function


http://cbpfindex.cbpf.br/publication_pdfs/NF03504.2010_07_12_15_19_24.pdf

The Riemann Zeta Function and Vacuum Spectrum


Casimir effect = Aether pressure

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1616174#msg1616174


Dirac sea = Whittaker potential scalar waves

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1994059#msg1994059


The Whittaker scalar bidirectional longitudinal subquark waves can transmit energy through the boson strings exactly because of the interplay between the two Riemann zeta functions, as described in the previous two messages.


Tibetan acoustic levitation using the 534Hz, 136.1Hz, 80Hz, 53.4Hz and 26.7Hz frequencies:

https://theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1388219#msg1388219

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1569140#msg1569140

http://www.subtleenergies.com/ormus/oc/chaptr01.htm

The seven bubbles no longer fit exactly under one another, as it were, if one looks along or through the wire endwise; in 100 "spirillae of the lowest order" there ought to be just 700 bubbles; so there are in the seven thinner, coloured wires, but in the three thicker wires there are 704. So the increase is at present 1 in 175. And the same curious little increase holds good in the relation of the different orders of spirillae, In the thinner wires exactly 7 spirillae of one order make 1 of the next higher order, so that 700 "b"s make exactly 100 "a"s and so on; but in the thicker wires 704 "b"s go to 100 '"a"s. and the same curious proportion all through.

The extra bosons (bubbles of light) form a latent lateral octave which can be activated through double torsion, a high electrical field, or sound, so that the antigravitational effect can be put to use.


"The zeta function is probably the most challenging and mysterious object of modern mathematics, in spite of its utter simplicity. . . The main interest comes from trying to improve the Prime Number Theorem, i.e. getting better estimates for the distribution of the prime numbers. The secret to the success is assumed to lie in proving a conjecture which Riemann stated in 1859 without much fanfare, and whose proof has since then become the single most desirable achievement for a mathematician."

M.C. Gutzwiller, Chaos in Classical and Quantum Mechanics, page 308

"Riemann showed the importance of study of [the zeta] function for a range of problems in number theory centering around the distribution of prime numbers, and he further demonstrated that many of these problems could be settled if one knew the location of the zeros of this function. In spite of continued assaults and much progress since Riemann's initial investigations this tantalizing question remains one of the major unsolved problems in mathematics."

D. Reed, Figures of Thought (Routledge, New York, 1995) p.123

"In [his 1859 paper], Riemann made an incidental remark - a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years...

...it is that incidental remark - the Riemann Hypothesis - that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant at work - subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age...

It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. ...Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many - the veritable 'great white whale' of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution.""

J. Derbyshire, from the dustjacket description of Prime Obsession (John Henry Press, 2003)

"Proving the Riemann hypothesis won't end the story. It will prompt a sequence of even harder, more penetrating questions. Why do the primes achieve such a delicate balance between randomness and order? And if their patterns do encode the behaviour of quantum chaotic systems, what other jewels will we uncover when we dig deeper?

Those who believe mathematics holds the key to the Universe might do well to ponder a question that goes back to the ancients: What secrets are locked within the primes?"

E. Klarreich, "Prime Time" (New Scientist, 11/11/00)

"Riemann's insight followed his discovery of a mathematical looking-glass through which he could gaze at the primes. Alice's world was turned upside down when she stepped through her looking-glass. In contrast, in the strange mathematical world beyond Riemann's glass, the chaos of the primes seemed to be transformed into an ordered pattern as strong as any mathematician could hope for. He conjectured that this order would be maintained however far one stared into the never-ending world beyond the glass. His prediction of an inner harmony on the far side of the mirror would explain why outwardly the primes look so chaotic. The metamorphosis provided by Riemann's mirror, where chaos turns to order, is one which most mathematicians find almost miraculous. The challenge that Riemann left the mathematical world was to prove that the order he thought he could discern was really there."

"For centuries, mathematicians had been listening to the primes and hearing only disorganised noise. These numbers were like random notes wildly dotted on a mathematical stave with no discernible tune. Now Riemann had found new ears with which to listen to these mysterious tones. The sine-like waves that Riemann had created from the zeros in his zeta landscape revealed some hidden harmonic structure."

"These zeros did not appear to be scattered at random. Riemann's calculations indicated that they were lining up as if along some mystical ley line running through the landscape."
 
"In an interview, Hilbert explained that he believed the Riemann Hypothesis to be the most important problem 'not only in mathematics but absolutely the most important.'"

"We have all this evidence that the Riemann zeros are vibrations, but we don't know what's doing the vibrating."

"Maybe we have become so hung up on looking at the primes from Gauss's and Riemann's perspective that what we are missing is simply a different way to understand these enigmatic numbers. Gauss gave an estimate for the number of primes, Riemann predicted that the guess is at worst the square root of N off its mark, Littlewood showed that you can't do better than this. Maybe there is an alternative viewpoint that no one has found because we have become so culturally attached to the house that Gauss built."

M. du Sautoy, The Music of the Primes

« Last Edit: January 08, 2018, 12:39:38 PM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #473 on: January 11, 2018, 08:23:15 AM »
SACRED CUBIT ZETA FUNCTION IV



It has been suggested that if a counterexample exists then it should be in the neighborhood of unusually large peaks of the zeta function.



The interesting behavior of spacings between zeros is due to S(t).

"Large values of S(t) are of special interest because it is only when S(t) is large that unusual behavior of the zeta function can take place. Locally extreme values of S(t) occur at zeros."

The view is that the values for which ζ(s) will exhibit its true asymptotic behaviour must be really very large.

"The RH and (5.3) imply that, as t → ∞, the graph of Z(t) will consist of tightly packed spikes, which will be more and more condensed as t increases, with larger and large oscillations. This I find hardly conceivable. Of course, it could happen that the RH is true and that (5.3) is not."

"Numerical calculations confirm that S grows very slowly: |S(T)| < 1 for T < 280, |S(T)| < 2 for T < 6800000, and the largest value of |S(T)| found so far is around 3.2. It is thus hard to predict the eventual behavior of the zeros, for extremely large numbers are required before this factor becomes significant. We have seen that S(t) grows extremely slowly with t so that major fluctuations in the zeros might not emerge with the large numbers so far computed."


A new paper on the connection between S(t) and very large zeros of the zeta function has evidenced new properties which show that at these large values of t spikes do not occur.

NEW COMPUTATIONS OF THE RIEMANN ZETA FUNCTION ON THE CRITICAL LINE

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.00709.pdf

As a byproduct of our search for large values, we also find large values of S(t). It is always the case in our computations that when ζ(1/2 + it) is very large there is a large gap between the zeros around the large value. And it seems that to compensate for this large gap the zeros nearby get “pushed” to the left and right. A typical trend in the large values that we have found is that S(t) is particularly large and positive before the large value and large and negative afterwards.

The calculations involve more than 50000 zeros in over 200 small intervals going up to the 1036th zero.


S(t) is related to the large gaps between the zeta zeros where high extreme values of peaks occur, where it seems to protect the zeta function from attaining the tightly packed spikes conjectured by mathematicians.


http://www.dhushara.com/DarkHeart/RH2/RH.htm (one of the very best works on the Riemann zeta function and the RH)

http://www.math.sjsu.edu/~goldston/Tsang%20Ch2.pdf (on the function S(t))

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022314X8790059X

https://math.boku.ac.at/udt/vol10/no2/09OzSteu.pdf (on the distribution of the argument of the zeta function)

http://wayback.cecm.sfu.ca/~pborwein/TEMP_PROTECTED/book.pdf (a classic work on the Riemann zeta function, it includes all of the major papers published over the last 150 years on the subject)

http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/unpublished/zeta.10to20.1992.pdf (one of the best papers on the zeta function, it includes pertinent material on the S(t) function, pg. 11, 25, 29, 43, 68)


Also, a new paper on the de Bruijn-Newman constant:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.05870.pdf (the connection between the de Bruijn-Newman constant and Lehmer pairs, implying that  Λ = 0, which of course means the RH is true, pg. 5)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1858153#msg1858153 (basic theory of the de Bruijn-Newman constant)


One of the highest Lehmer pairs found so far:



A Lehmer pair occurs where the two subdivisions of the sacred cubit distance have very close values.


In 1974, in one of the best papers published on the zeta function ever, N. Levinson proved that more than 1/3 of the zeros of Riemann's zeta function lie on the σ = 1/2 line:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001870874900747

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC388151/

Levinson indicated that it would be possible to prove that more than 98% of the zeros lie on the σ = 1/2 line, using a method that allowed for a converse to Rolle’s theorem in this situation, implying that if ξ'(s) has at least a certain proportion of zeros on the line, then so does ξ and similarly for ξ" to ξ' and so on.

http://empslocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/zeta/conreyRH.pdf


"The lack of a proof of the Riemann hypothesis doesn't just mean we don't know all the zeros are on the line x = 1/2 , it means that despite all the zeros we know of lying neatly and precisely smack bang on the line x = 1/2 , no one knows why any of them do, for if we had a definitive reason why the first zero 1/2 + 14.13472514 i has real value precisely 1/2 we would have a reason to know why they all do. Neither do we know why the imaginary parts have the values they do.

Answers to such questions depend on a much more detailed knowledge of the distribution of zeros of the zeta function than is given by the RH. Relatively little work has been devoted to the precise distribution of the zeros. The main reason for the lack of research in this area was undoubtedly the feeling that there was little to be gained from studying problems harder than the RH if the RH itself could not be proved."


The height of the Gizeh pyramid measures exactly 141.34 meters.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1836001#msg1836001

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1835548#msg1835548


The Gizeh pyramid was not built by the Egyptians:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1625605#msg1625605


The fact that the arhitects of the pyramid knew the exact value of the first zero of the zeta function and that they used the extended arctangent series means that they had a deep knowledge of mathematical analysis at their disposal:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1834389#msg1834389

The sacred cubit is designated in the form of a horseshoe projection, known as the "Boss" on the face of the Granite Leaf in the Ante-Chamber of the Pyramid. By application of this unit of measurement it was discovered to be subdivided into 25 equal parts known now as: Pyramid inches.

ONE SACRED CUBIT = 0.6356621 meters:

http://www.aldokkan.com/photos/great_pyramid/30_great_pyramid.jpg

14.134725 x 180 = 2544.25

0.0254425 = one sacred inch

0.0254425 x 25 = 0.6360625 = one sacred cubit

14.134725 - 4π = 1.568354 (value of the width of the first section from the queen chamber niche)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1855591#msg1855591


...for if we had a definitive reason why the first zero 1/2 + 14.13472514 i has real value precisely 1/2 we would have a reason to know why they all do.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1950765#msg1950765

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 04:27:21 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #474 on: January 16, 2018, 04:48:25 AM »
SACRED CUBIT ZETA FUNCTION V

https://news.artnet.com/art-world/great-pyramid-giza-egypt-void-1144325

https://www.nature.com/news/cosmic-ray-particles-reveal-secret-chamber-in-egypt-s-great-pyramid-1.22939

Scientists Have Discovered a Secret Room in the Great Pyramid of Giza Measuring 100 ft in Length



This finding supports the theory that there are two sets of chambers inside the Gizeh pyramid, which are symmetrical.

https://web.archive.org/web/20100420104333/http://www.ianjamescolmer.com/pyramid.htm








https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1831408#msg1831408 (the predicted hidden chambers of the Gizeh pyramid)

The king's chamber has to have two connections to the other chambers in order to form a five element sequence.

The second opening, though, has been hidden.



(John and Edgar Morton photograph, 1910)





(present day photograph)


In this case, there are two Riemann zeta function on either side of the centerline, located at 1/2 units to the right and to the left of the center.

The one located to the left is an upside down version of the zeta function found to the right of the centerline: an 180 degree rotation of the zeta function located to the right.

It is not clear yet how the sothic triangle which embeds the merkabah in the center would also allow the other two corresponding zeta functions to propagate the opposite way.


For the Gizeh pyramid:

h = 141.347 meters

hapex = 7.2738 meters = 286.1 sacred inches

286.1 = 450 sacred cubits

Masonry base = 141.347 - 136.1 = 5.24725 meters


7.2738 = 53.4 x 0.534 x 0.25424 = 100t x t x 10si

53.4/0.25424 = 210.03776 (a very good estimate of the 21.022 second zero of the zeta function)

136.1/53.4 = 2.54869

136.1/53.43 = 2.5472

(0.2861)1/2 = 0.534883

h (subterranean chamber to apex) = 286.1 sacred cubits


hapex = 100t x t x 10si

The next two notable sacred cubits figures, beyond 286.1 si, are 534 sisi and 636.36 si.

636.36 si = 16.1773 meters (the height of the apex of the pyramid whose frustum measures exactly the value of the second zeta function)

16.1773 = 100t x t x 10si

t = 79.768 meters (the equivalent figure of the 53.4 meter value of the Gizeh pyramid)

79.768 x 2.5424 = 202.803 meters (the equivalent figure of the 136.1 m value of the Gizeh pyramid)


79.768/0.25424 = 313.75

31.375 - 25.0108 = 6.3643


7.2738/5.24725 = 1.38621

7.28/5.24725 = 1.3874


21.022 x 10 = 210.22 (hfrustum of the pyramid representing the second zeta zero)

210.22 - 202.803 = 7.417 (height of masonry base of the second pyramid)


16.1773/7.417 = 2.181

1.3874/2.181 = 0.63613

That is, if we divide the height of the apex to the the masonry base value of the first pyramid, and divide the result by one sacred cubit, we get the ratio for the second pyramid (second zeta zero).


For the second pyramid, the height of the king chamber floor would be around 66.6 meters. For the first pyramid, the distance between the tip of the roof of Campbell's chamber and the top of the frustum measures 63.63 meters. For the second pyramid this value would be somewhere around 91 meters.

For the 534 si value pyramid, the corresponding ratio does not lead to the sacred cubit figure, a sign that the correct value is 636.36 si for the apex of the second pyramid, which represents the second zeta zero.


The next notable figures are: 858 si (286.1 x 3), 890 si (534/6). Then, 1273.2 si and 1144.44 si (286.1 x 4). Next, we would have 1430.5 si, 1816 si (181.6 = 286.1 sc), 2002.7 si (286.1 x 7).


Using the same reasoning as above, together with the subdivision of the sacred distance according to the law of proportions of the five elements derived earlier, we would get excellent approximations for the next three zeros: 25.0108, 30.424 and 32.935.


There must be another hidden template at work here, where the missing apex of each pyramid constitutes another important clue as to how to obtain the correct value of the subsequent zeta zero.

Let us remember that the computer-assisted proofs provided by Dr. Yuri Matiyasevich showed, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that the zeta zeros examined were all related to each other, and the interpolating determinant could actually predict with great precision the next zero, using the figures of the previous zeros.

In addition to the five element subdivision of the sacred distance, there must be an additional way, using the values of the missing apexes, to calculate the values of the zeta zeros.


« Last Edit: January 16, 2018, 06:03:56 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #475 on: January 17, 2018, 01:05:28 AM »
THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF THE STATIONARY EARTH II

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2000525#msg2000525 (part I)



But these constitute only HALF of the field lines of a magnet.

SPINTRONICS, the secret world of magnets, the most thorough work on the double helix theory of the magnetic field (double helix of the telluric currents):

https://freeenergycommunity.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/the-secret-world-of-magnets-spintronics-2006-howard-johnson.pdf






There two flows of subquarks/magnetic monopoles: South-Center-North AND North-Center-South.

The modern study of the magnetic field/electromagnetism ONLY includes the South to North flow.

Yet, there are TWO continuous streams of different particles.

What, then, is the nature of the SECOND flux of particles?

http://www.electricitybook.com/magnetricity/hojo-leed.jpg

(Leedskalnin's diagram of the two streams of magnetic monopoles in a magnet)

"The Coral Castle is a decorative park built by E. Leedskalnin from over 1,000 tons of megalithic coral rock; dense blocks which from 1923 until 1951 were quarried, carved and stacked to form towers, beds and tables, rocking chairs, sundials and astrological figures.

As a folly, it is singularly unique – but what makes it stranger still is the fact that the Coral Castle was built by one man alone, using no more than hand tools as he fashioned a palace over the course of 28 years of solitary labour. In 1986 it took six men and a crane to repair the nine-ton gate; and yet this single man had been able to stack 14-ton slabs unaided.

Within the castle walls, built of coral blocks weighing approximately 15 tons each, there are a 22-ton obelisk, a 22-ton moon block, a 23-ton Jupiter block, a Saturn block, a 9-ton gate, a rocking chair that weighed 3-tons, and numerous puzzles. A huge 30-ton block is crowned with a gable shaped rock. Leedskalnin claimed to have used his knowledge of the double stream of magnetic lines to provide the force necessary to lift the blocks."



"Magnetic current is the same as electric current is a wrong expression. Really it is not one current they are two currents, one current is composed of North Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams, and the other is composed of South Pole magnets in concentrated streams, and they are running one stream against the other stream in whirling, screw like fashion, and with high speed."


Modern science only studies one of these streams.


Whittaker proved that the potential consists of pairs of bidirectional longitudinal scalar waves, and that the same equation governs both gravity and magnetism.


The second flow/stream of particles IS THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE, which has a dextrorotatory spin. Both flows/streams form the ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL FIELD.


The spherical orbiting Earth has a STATIC gravitational field and a ROTATING magnetic field.

But in reality BOTH have to be rotating.

"A Gravity-based Theory

There is, however, another theory that does not rely on the concept of an aether, but is very closely aligned with the aether theories discussed thus far. The late Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering Petr Beckmann proposed that the outdated term "aether" could be replaced with the more modern term "gravity." Clearly, a gravitational field would have characteristics very similar to a partially entrained aether. Both would cause the bending of light rays. Gravity would be strongest near the surface of the planet where the partially entrained aether was most dense. Light would still behave in the same manner, if the speed of light is constant with respect to the source of the dominant gravitational field. This would square with all of the known experimental data because in nearly every case, the observer has always been tied to the Earth-bound frame of reference—so we substitute the word "gravity" for the word "aether." Obviously gravity exists and we know that, although gravity is "emitted" by the Earth, it does not rotate with it. So this is a very plausible replacement for a partially entrained aether. It also stands to reason if we speculate that light is actually a disturbance in the gravitational field.

Dr. William Cantrell"

William H. Cantrell, PhD, is a
member of the technical staff
at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory.
He was formerly an adjunct assistant
professor in the electrical
engineering department at the
University of Texas.

http://printarchive.epochtimes.com/a1/en/hk/nnn/2014/04_April/15/B4.pdf

https://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/journalarchives19-2.html

https://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol19_no2/19_2_4_Stambaugh.pdf

Dr. Petr Beckmann, PhD in EE

https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Petr_Beckmann


The magnetic field does rotate along with the Earth.

But not its gravitational field: the orbiting Earth rotates through its gravitational field.


The rotating ether field above the surface of the Earth acts as a electrogravitational field. This field is bounded by the outer aether dome (there is no outer ice wall). The dome acts as a shield between the terrestrial gravitational force and the planetary/stellar gravitational force.

There are TWO FLOWS and A CENTER.

That is, the are two sets of different particles (magnetic monopoles) traveling both in the North-Center-South and in the South-Center-North directions, going through the center.

The location of the center of the flat earth:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1952743#msg1952743

The double torsion flow of subquarks (magnetic monopoles) issues forth from both poles and goes through the center, before reaching the other pole.

This is how the electrogravitational field "rotates" above the surface of the flat earth.

By comparison, the definition of a rotating magnetic field:

"A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field that has moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis."


Modern science assumes that the gravitational field and the magnetic field of the Earth represent two different physical phenomena: one is stationary ( the gravitational field does not rotate along with the supposed rotation of the Earth), the other one (the magnetic field) is rotating with the Earth around its own axis.


In reality BOTH the gravitational and the magnetic streams travel in double torsion fashion, as proven by Whittaker mathematically, and shown to be true experimentally in the Spintronics, The Secret World of Magnets book.


One (the gravitational field) cannot be stationary, while the other (the magnetic field) rotates at a certain rate: the bidirectional waves which comprise this lattice would be decoupled in an instant.

THEY HAVE TO ROTATE TOGETHER. In the case of heliocentrism, one of them HAS TO BE STATIONARY, WHILE THE OTHER ONE ROTATES.


The Aurora Borealis cannot be explained by an external stream of plasma/ions that are injected into the Earth's magnetic field.

The auroral displays are caused by the celestial object that orbits above the North Pole region.



http://hollowplanet.blogspot.ro/2007/09/earth-weaves-its-own-invisible-cloak.html

NASA Scientists Agree — Polar Ion Fountains Fill the Earth's Magnetosphere

http://www.ourhollowearth.com/Earth_weaves_its_own_invisible_cloak.pdf

"The perception started to change in the mid-1980s following the Aug. 3, 1981, launch of two Dynamics Explorer satellites designed to study the magnetosphere near the Earth. DE-1 carried Chappell's Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS), designed to measure the population of the plasmasphere, a torus or donut of low-energy in the inner magnetosphere.

To Chappell's surprise, the real find was around the north pole where RIMS measured gases flowing upward from the ionosphere into space."


Aurora is the sister of Luna and Sol. Also called Eos: sister of Helios (the sun) and Selene (the moon).

It only orbits above the North Pole, and the must be a counterpart orbiting the South Pole, which causes the Aurora Australis.

Greenland and parts of northern Canada and Russia experience light from the sun via Earth’s Aurora.

The hollow earth hypothesis suffers from the same problems as does the spherical earth theory: the curvature and the static gravitational field.

Aurora is documented in the various legends around the world: it is the "inner sun" of the hollow earth theory.

It also provides light in the northern and southern pole regions during some periods of the year.

Aurora, sister of the Sun and of the Moon:

http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Eos.html

« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 04:31:19 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #476 on: February 05, 2018, 05:06:04 AM »
THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL FIELD AND ATMOSPHERIC TIDES

The barometer pressure paradox proves that the same mass of air gravitates with changing force at different hours.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1707294#msg1707294

The pressure oscillations occur at each and every point where pressure records are kept at every station.

The semidiurnal atmospheric tide takes place at each and every point on the Earth's surface.

The semidiurnal pressure oscillations tides have two maxima and two minima per day.

The pressure pattern of the tides, having two waves go over the surface of the flat Earth, defies Newtonian gravitational theory.

It is a huge etheric gravitational tide which encompasses the entire surface of the Earth.


However, the precise observations made by Dr. D.F. Martyn have shown that the atmospheric tides in the ionosphere match the semidiurnal tides as well.

http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsa/190/1021/273.full.pdf


BOTH the gravitational and the magnetic fields HAVE TO BE rotating over the surface of the Earth in order for these effects of the atmospheric tides to take place.

Yet, modern science assumes that the gravitational field and the magnetic field of the Earth represent two different physical phenomena: one is stationary ( the gravitational field does not rotate along with the supposed rotation of the Earth), the other one (the magnetic field) is rotating with the Earth around its own axis.

But one cannot be stationary, while the other one is rotating: the same effects recorded for both the atmospheric tide and the ionosphere tide would be decoupled in an instant.

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2000525#msg2000525 (part I)

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #477 on: February 05, 2018, 06:59:23 AM »
DOUBLE TORSION ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL WAVES: TESLA BIFILAR COILS



Tesla was a pioneer in the use of the double torsion concept in theory of electromagnetism.

https://teslauniverse.com/nikola-tesla/patents/us-patent-512340-coil-electro-magnets

"The new idea of this patent seems to be that inductors have self-capacitance. Unlike an ordinary coil made by turning wire on a tube form, this one uses two wires laid next to each other on a form but with the end of the first one connected to the beginning of the second one. Tesla intended (and stated) these coils will cancel the self-induction, which in common electrical science means the inductive impedance is canceled by capacitive inductance hence it is a self resonant device (it has its own resonant frequency)."





"A standard solenoidal-wound coil of 1000 turns with a potential of 100 volts across it
will have a difference of 0.1 volt between turns.

• A BIFILAR-wound coil of the same number of turns will have a potential of 50 volts between turns.

Because the stored energy is a function of the square of the voltages,
the energy in the BIFILAR Coil will be 50 squared / .1 squared  =  2500 / .01   =   250,000  times greater than the standard coil."

http://aetherwizard.com/tesla/bifilar_electromagnet.htm


Tesla bifilar coil experiments done by JNaudin Labs

http://jnaudin.free.fr/gegene/indexen.htm

Comparison of Tesla Bifilar and Pancake Coils




Test #1



Test #2



Test #3







JPL/CalTech have copied Tesla's design:

https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_2311.html

The caduceus coils also exhibit antigravitational features as well:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1620300#msg1620300
« Last Edit: May 11, 2018, 09:47:23 PM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #478 on: February 12, 2018, 01:57:03 AM »
TOPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE SAGNAC EFFECT

"Sagnac effect is a change in propagation time for light going in a closed path. The time delay Δt appears when a test equipment is rotated with an angular velocity Ώ. Sagnac effect is frequently used in rate gyros in navigational systems. Fiber optics is used with light-speed c inside the fiber in a circular light path. The difference in propagation time Δt for two opposite directions of light is described as

Δt = 4AΩ/c2

Where A is enclosed area. Δt is derived based on an integration of Ω over A.

According to Stokes' rule can an integration of angular velocity Ω over an area A be substituted by an integration of tangential component of translational velocity v along the closed line of length L limiting the given area. This interpretation gives

Δt = 4vL/c2

producing the same value as the earlier expression. This can also be demonstrated by geometrical relations. These two integrations have different physical implications. We must therefore decide which one is correct from a physical aspect. Mathematics can not tell us that. So the decision is whether the effect is caused by a rotating area or by a translating line. Since Sagnac effect is an effect in light that is enclosed inside an optical fiber we can conclude that Sagnac effect is distributed along a line and not over an area. No light and no rotation exists in the enclosed area. Sagnac detected therefore an effect of translation although he had to rotate the equipment to produce the effect inside the fiber.

We conclude that the later expression

Δt = 4vL/c2

is the correct interpretation."

http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/2159

"Sagnac effect is distributed along a line and not over a surface. The assumption that starts from an integration over a surface (2Aw; rotation) is mathematically correct (due to Stokes' rule) but equal to a line integral (vL; translation). We must decide if the reason is a translating line or a rotating surface from a physical point of view. The rotation theory is correct only mathematically. Since the effect is locked inside an optical fiber the translating line is the correct interpretation. Classification as a rotational effect is wrong."

Professor Ruyong Wang has proven the Sagnac effect applies to uniform/translational/linear motion:

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609222.pdf

https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0609/0609202.pdf

http://web.stcloudstate.edu/ruwang/ION58PROCEEDINGS.pdf


Therefore, the formula for the Sagnac phase shift which features the area and the angular velocity IS INCORRECT. Only the formula which includes the linear velocity is CORRECT.


The analogy between the Aharonov-Bohm phase and the Sagnac phase:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1997318#msg1997318


The topological feature of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is its multiple-connectedness:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1999598#msg1999598


The Sagnac phase is multiply-connected as well:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288491190_SAGNAC_EFFECT_A_consequence_of_conservation_of_action_due_to_gauge_field_global_conformal_invariance_in_a_multiply-joined_topology_of_coherent_fields




The phase difference of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and of the Sagnac effect is described by the POTENTIAL (A) enclosed by the curve C.

« Last Edit: February 12, 2018, 04:59:14 AM by sandokhan »

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sandokhan

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Re: Advanced Flat Earth Theory
« Reply #479 on: February 12, 2018, 08:38:01 AM »
THE MICHELSON-GALE EXPERIMENT HOAX

The experiment carried out in 1925 by A. Michelson and H. Gale, aided by F. Pearson, was supposed to measure the Sagnac effect due to Earth's rotation (to resolve the issue whether or not the rotation of the Earth had an effect on the propagation of light in the vicinity of the Earth, using a very large interferometer).

However, Michelson and Gale USED THE WRONG FORMULA.

http://www.aamorris.net/properganderatpropaganda/2017/8/9/there-is-no-evidence-the-earth-spins-part-1a-michelson-gale-make-fudge (examines the claims of the Michelson-Gale experiment)


The formula used by Michelson and Gale was the CORIOLIS EFFECT FORMULA, and not the equation for the Sagnac phase shift.

Spinning Earth and its Coriolis effect on the circuital light beams

http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/087/05/0071

Classical Interpretations of Relativistic Phenomena

https://file.scirp.org/pdf/JMP20120200009_86423451.pdf (pg. 198)


The formula for the fringe measurements caused by the Coriolis effect IS THE SAME as the formula derived by A. Michelson for the Sagnac effect as applied to the rotation of the Earth.

The Coriolis effect (not the Sagnac effect) is responsible for the non-null result of the Michelson–Gale experiment assisted by Pearson and the experiment of Bilger et al.


As was shown in the previous message, the Sagnac phase shift formula featuring the area and the angular velocity is the incorrect mathematical expression.

That is why the derivation published by A. Michelson is completely wrong: the data for the Michelson-Gale experiment was obtained by measuring the Coriolis effect and not the Sagnac effect.

This means that no physicist, so far, has published the correct Sagnac formula for the interferometer in the shape of a rectangle which is supposed to detect the rotation of the Earth (with the exception of the formula for the rotating linear segment which uses phase conjugate mirrors).  All of the Sagnac phase shift formulas published up to this time for the detection of the rotation of the Earth (interferometer on the surface of the Earth) highlight the area and the angular velocity: these formulas actually describe the Coriolis effect, and not the Sagnac effect (again, with the exception of the equation for the rotating linear segment).

The correct Sagnac formula has to include the tangential velocity, not the area or the angular velocity.

Most probably, Michelson and Gale realized that they were actually carrying out an experiment designed to find the effect of the Coriolis force and not the effects of the Sagnac phase shift, and chose not to disclose their findings to the scientific community.

Geocentric Coriolis force:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg953747#msg953747

« Last Edit: February 12, 2018, 09:57:12 PM by sandokhan »