**SAGNAC EFFECT XI**The missing orbital Sagnac effect proves that the Earth is completely stationary.

What is the center of rotation for the orbit of the earth?

Here is the equation.

∆t = 4πRv / ( c² - v²) = 4Aω / ( c² - v²)

Where A = πR² and v = ωR

So, it is easy to calculate the orbital sagnac is more than 60 times that of the rotational.

But, A is based on R and according to mathpages, "circular loop of radius R".

http://www.mathpages.com/rr/s2-07/2-07.htmMathpages says one must use the center of rotation which is the sun.

It is a loop and the earth is moving along the loop in its orbit around the sun.

If light travels at one speed c, then as the earth supposedly moves in it's revolution loop at 30k/s, while light moves c through space, the unit at the equator at noon would move with the earth' rotation and the earth's revolution cutting the distance the signal must travel to meet the unit.

"Let's say the unit is at the equator and the satellite is low on the horizon in the east at noon.

That means the unit is traveling at the orbital speed of the earth at 67,000 MPH.

The satellite emits at one speed c in space. While the light travels through space toward the unit at c, the unit moves with the earth at 67,000 MPH. The unit cuts the distance that the light must travel.

This is not being seen by any experiements nor GPS."

Yet, this same logic applies and works with the earth's supposed rotation.

Published by the BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY, one of the most prestigious journals in the world today.

C.C. Su, "A Local-ether model of propagation of electromagnetic wave," in Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 45, no. 1, p. 637, Mar. 2000 (Minneapolis, Minnesota).

http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/ccsu/**Both the rotational and the orbital motions of the earth together with the orbital**

motion of the target planet contribute to the Sagnac

effect. But the orbital motion of the sun has no effects

on the interplanetary propagation. On the other hand, as

the unique propagation frame in GPS and intercontinental

links is a geocentric inertial frame, the rotational motion

of the earth contributes to the Sagnac effect.

**But the orbital**

motion of the earth around the sun and that of the

sun have no effects on the earthbound propagation. By

comparing GPS with interplanetary radar, it is seen that

there is a common Sagnac effect due to earth’s rotation

and a common null effect of the orbital motion of the sun

on wave propagation.

**However, there is a discrepancy in**

the Sagnac effect due to earth’s orbital motion. Moreover,

by comparing GPS with the widely accepted interpretation

of the Michelson–Morley experiment, it is seen that

there is a common null effect of the orbital motions on

wave propagation, whereas there is a discrepancy in the

Sagnac effect due to earth’s rotation.

Based on this characteristic of uniqueness and switchability of the propagation frame,

we propose in the following section the local-ether model

of wave propagation

**to solve the discrepancies in the in-**

fluences of earth’s rotational and orbital motions on the

Sagnac effect and to account for a wide variety of propagation

phenomena.

**Anyway, the interplanetary Sagnac effect is due to**

earth’s orbital motion around the sun as well as earth’s

rotation. Further, for the interstellar propagation where

the source is located beyond the solar system, the orbital

motion of the sun contributes to the interstellar Sagnac

effect as well.

Evidently, as expected, the proposed local-ether model

accounts for the Sagnac effect due to earth’s rotation and

the null effect of earth’s orbital motion in the earthbound

propagations in GPS and intercontinental microwave link

experiments. Meanwhile, in the interplanetary radar, it accounts

for the Sagnac effect due both to earth’s rotation

and to earth’s orbital motion around the sun.

Based on the local-ether model, the propagation is entirely

independent of the earth’s orbital motion around

the sun or whatever and the velocity v for such an earthbound

experiment is referred to an ECI frame and hence

is due to earth’s rotation alone.

** In the original proposal,**

the velocity v was supposed to incorporate earth’s orbital

motion around the sun. Thus, at least, v^{2}/c^{2}

=~ 10^{-8}. Then the amplitude of the phase-difference variation

could be as large as π/3, when the wavelength is

0.6 µm and the path length is 10 m. However, as the velocity

v is the linear velocity due to earth’s rotation alone,

the round-trip Sagnac effect is as small as v^{2}/c^{2}∼ 10^{-12} which is merely 10^{-4} times that due to the orbital motion.The Sagnac effect is a FIRST ORDER effect in v/c.

Even in the round-trip nature of the Sagnac effect, as it was applied in the Michelson-Morley experiment, thus becoming a second order effect within that context,

**we can see that the ORBITAL SAGNAC IS 10,000 TIMES GREATER than the rotational Sagnac effect.**Here is how to correctly calculate the orbital Sagnac effect:

Earth's radius = 6357 km; r² = 40411449

Earth's orbital radius = 150,000,000 km r² = 22500000000000000

∆t = 4πR²ω/(c²-v²)

or

I use the linear velocity.

∆t = 4πRv/( c² - v² ), where v is the linear velocity.

For the earth's rotation, it is 0.4638333 km/ sec and the orbit v = 30km/sec.

**∆t = 0.62831852628 for the earth's orbit.**Total path of the orbit is 2πr=2π(150,000,000 km) = 942,477,780km

Hence, the sagnac effect for a 1 km path, that means light source in the center and two receivers placed at .5km is:

0.62831852628 / 942,477,780km = 6.6666667 e-10 sec / km

Now, for the earth's rotation.

**∆t = 4.1170061 e-7 seconds**Total path of the rotation is 2πr=2π(6357 km) = 39942.21 km

4.1170061 e-7 seconds / 39942.21 km = 1.0307407 e-11 sec / km

The sagnac effect for the earth's orbit is greater than that of the rotation.

The orbital Sagnac, though much larger than the rotational Sagnac, is not being registered by GPS satellites.

The lunar laser ranging experiment is an astronomical version of the Sagnac experiment.

However, G. Sagnac used the fringe-shift method to measure indirectly light travel time;

while Dr. Daniel Gezari uses clocks to measure directly light travel time in both directions.

Shooting light to the moon has to do with the behavior of light like GPS.

The arrival time of light to a receptor is influenced by the motion of

the receptor relative to the earth: this is the basic discovery of G. Sagnac.

This fact has to be incorporated into the lunar laser ranging calculations.

Here is a basic reference which confirms this fact:

Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics, G.E. Steadman, 1997, pg 15

One needs both the orbital and rotational Sagnac to calculate the correct timing, there is no way around that.

Dr. Daniel Gezari emitted a pulse of photons from a point on earth, bounced those photons off a reflector on the moon, and then recorded the photons’ arrival time at that same point on earth.

Please note the theoretical orbital sagnac shows up in these calculations, but is not picked up/registered/recorded by GPS satellites.

*Motion of the Earth-Moon system in orbit around the Sun would average out in a two-way measurement, and only appear as a small (∼3 m/s) second-order residual.*Because of the two-way averaging, the orbital Sagnac effect registered is smaller than usual, however it is not 1/365 of the rotational Sagnac effect, in fact even in the diluted form permitted by the two-way averaging calculation, it represents a significant percentage of the rotational Sagnac effect.

THE SMALL (~3M/S) SECOND ORDER RESIDUAL IS THE ORBITAL SAGNAC.

For instance, the Earth’s full 30 km/s orbital velocity along the line-of-sight would produce a second-order residual velocity of only ~3 m/s, so we cannot preclude the possibility that some part of the 8.4 m /s difference between co and c measured here is a real second-order residual due to motion of the Earth-Moon system relative to an absolute frame.

THE 8.4 M/S DIFFERENCE IS THE ROTATIONAL SAGNAC.

Dr. Daniel Gezari:

For instance, the Earth’s full 30 km/s orbital velocity along the line-of-sight would produce a second-order residual velocity of only ~3 m/s, so we cannot preclude the possibility that some part of the 8.4 m /s difference

3/8.4 = 0.357

1/365 = 0.00274

0.357/0.00274 = 130.3

Now, because of the vast distance, if the RE were correct, we should see 1/365 of the rotational sagnac in the measurements and that will show up on this vast distance.

So, if they are correct, then we should see the 1/365 conclusions in the measurements. Guess what. We do not.

Dr. Daniel Gezari's calculations prove otherwise: even in the diluted two way averaging form, the orbital Sagnac amounts for a 3/8.4 = 0.357 (35.7%) percentage of the rotational Sagnac.

It is also of interest to note that the missing orbital Sagnac effect proves that the lunar missions never occurred in reality, that the lunar laser ranging is actually a small mirror (in the form of a minuscule satellite) orbiting above the flat surface of the Earth right in front of the Moon, using the Biefeld-Brown effect to stay in orbit.

More information on Dr. C.C. Su's paper on the orbital Sagnac effect.

His paper was also published by HARVARD UNIVERSITY:

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?2001EPJC...21..701SSee the headline at the top:

NASA ADS Physics/Geophysics Abstract Service

So far, Dr. C.C. Su's papers, which include the correct orbital Sagnac calculations, based on a circular loop with the center of rotation located at the Sun, have been published by:

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL

EUROPHYSICS LETTERS JOURNAL

JOURNAL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND APPLICATIONS

Further information here:

http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/ccsu/Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications:

http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/ccsu/qem/f3c.pdfFor the interplanetary propagation, earth’s orbital

motion contributes to the Sagnac effect as well. This local-ether model

has been adopted to account for the Sagnac effect due to earth’s

motions in a wide variety of propagation phenomena, particularly the

global positioning system (GPS), the intercontinental microwave link,

and the interplanetary radar.

The peer reviewers at the Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications agree that the orbital Sagnac is larger than the rotational Sagnac, that it is missing, and that a local-ether model has to be adopted in order to account for this fact.

Faced with the missing orbital Sagnac effect, relativists have begun to renounce both STR/GTR and to rely on the local aether model (MLET, Modified Lorentz Ether Theory).

The solar gravitational potential effect upon the GPS clocks is also missing:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1846706#msg1846706This means that the hypotheses of the RUDERFER EXPERIMENT are totally fulfilled:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1846721#msg1846721The existence of aether, however, has several other implications:

It shows that the Moon could not possibly cause the solar eclipse (the Allais effect):

An overview of the Allais effect (parts I - VII):

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1676115#msg1676115 (the Black Sun and the laevorotatory subquarks)

ALLAIS EFFECT:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg760382#msg760382The ether is DYNAMICAL and not static:

The most significant development since Miller has been the

experiments of Yuri Galaev of the Institute of Radiophysics and

Electronics in the Ukraine. Galaev made independent measure-

ments of ether-drift using radiofrequency and optical wave

bands. His research "confirmed Miller's results down

to the details".

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1722791#msg1722791Yuri Galaev, Ph.D.; Senior research officer of the Institute for Radiophysics & Electronics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS)

THE MEASURING OF ETHER-DRIFT VELOCITY AND KINEMATIC ETHER VISCOSITY WITHIN OPTICAL WAVES BAND Yu.M. Galaev The Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics of NSA in Ukraine

Both the BIEFELD-BROWN EFFECT and the SPINNING BALL EXPERIMENT defy the "law" of attractive gravitation:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg759935#msg759935https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg753387#msg753387New messages:

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg789442#msg789442 (gases in the atmosphere paradox)

https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg819201#msg819201 (stationary atmosphere)