**C.M. HILL PULSAR OBSERVATIONS**Charles M. Hill has shown, via an analysis of millisecond pulsar data, that clocks on the earth have cyclic variations due to the eccentricity of the earth's orbit around the sun (in the geocentric model, the same cyclic variations are caused by the orbit of the Sun which is bounded by the two Tropics).

http://www.naturalphilosophy.org//pdf//abstracts/abstracts_1767.pdfHill has shown, using external pulsar timing sources, if the Earth is not in circular orbit, the local clock rate will vary as a function of the changing gravitational potential and orbital velocity.

Charles M. Hill (1995) has reported results comparing the clocks

on the earth to millisecond pulsars. This comparison

clearly reveals the source for the cyclic clock biases

described above. Specifically, in the sun’s frame, the vector

sum of the earth’s orbital velocity and the earth’s spin

velocity causes a cyclic clock rate term which integrates

into a cyclic clock bias as a function of the along track

distance from the earth’s center. (Though not addressed

here, the clocks in the GPS satellites would also suffer

cyclic clock-rate terms as a result of the vector sum of the

satellite orbit velocity with the earth’s orbit velocity.) Note

that in the sun’s frame these cyclic clock disturbances are

properly recognized and removed in the process of

determining a correct time within the sun’s barycentric

frame. Like the cyclic clock-rate error, which occurs as a

result of ignoring the sun’s gravitational potential, this

velocity product (in the sun’s frame) gives a clock rate

error that is ignored in the earth’s frame.

As Hill (1995) describes, the pulsar data reveals a diurnal

variation in the clock rate of about 300 ps s peak-to-peak.

The noon second is about 300 ps shorter (frequency

higher at noon) than the midnight second because of the

product of the earth’s orbital and spin velocities at the

equator. The term causing this clock rate variation comes

from the squaring of the vector addition of the two

velocities. It is given by:

Δf = (v

_{e}v

_{s}/c)cosθ

where the ‘‘e’’ subscript designates the orbital velocity, the

‘‘s’’ subscript the spin velocity, and θ is the angle between

the earth’s orbital velocity and the earth spin velocity at

the clock. Plugging in the values gives a clock rate peak

magnitude of 153 ps s or 2.1 μs per radian of the earth

rotation rate. Clearly, the cosine term integrates to a value

of one for a single quadrant of rotation. The result directly

corresponds to the bias term given in Eq. (8 ) above.

The difference in sun’s gravitational potential causes a

clock rate term given by:

Δf = {1 - 2GM/(r

_{a} - r

_{e}cosØ)c

^{2}}

^{1/2} - {1 - 2GM/r

_{a}c

^{2}}

^{1/2}where the ‘‘a‘‘ subscript designates the orbital radius, the

‘‘e‘‘ subscript the earth radius and Ø is the angle between

the earth radius to the clock and the orbital radius of the

earth. Plugging in the values gives a clock rate peak

magnitude of 0.42 ps s (365 times smaller than the velocity

cross product term) or 2.1 μs per radian of the earth

orbital rate. The sign of this gravitational term is opposite

to that of the diurnal term. (The frequency is lower at

noon.) It causes the diurnal period of one sidereal day,

which results from Eq. (10) to become a period of one

solar day. Again, the result clearly corresponds to the bias

given in Eq. (8 ) above. In the earth’s frame, both clock rate

terms are ignored. It is by ignoring these cyclic rate terms

in the earth’s frame that the clock biases are generated,

which cause the speed of light to appear as isotropic.

The point of the above is worth emphasizing again. Clocks

external to the solar system (millisecond pulsars) can be

compared to clocks on the earth. Since clocks run at a

unique rate, the difference in the external clocks and the

earth-bound clocks can provide us with the unique

knowledge of the true clock rate of clocks on the earth. The

values obtained show that a cyclic clock rate occurs which

integrates into a cyclic clock bias. The cyclic clock rate

arises from two sources including (1) the product term of

the spin velocity combined with the orbital velocity, and

(2) the differences in the gravitational potential of the sun

at the clocks’ position compared to that at the center of the

earth. When the earth’s frame is used, it is easy to ignore

the composite velocity term because the orbital velocity is

removed. (But even though it is easy to ignore, removing it

assigns an erroneous cyclic clock rate to the clocks

according to the millisecond pulsars.) However, the

absence of the second cyclic term, due to the gradient of

the sun’s gravitational potential, cannot be explained by

SRT when the earth’s frame is used. As we saw above, two

faulty attempts have been made to explain its absence. The

millisecond pulsars testify to its presence, and it causes the

clock bias value to have a cyclic period of one year such

that the bias always remains a function of the distance in

the direction of the changing orbital velocity vector.

**Using the SRT, no proper explanation for the apparently**

missing effect of the sun’s gravitational potential upon the

clocks in the earth’s frame can be found.

SRT cannot explain the missing effect from the sun’s

gravitational potential and incorrectly assigns multiple

rates to the same clock in the same identical environment.http://worldnpa.org/abstracts/abstracts_5789.pdf (full article)

BY ASSUMING THAT STR IS CORRECT, MODERN ASTROPHYSICS MUST ALSO ASSUME THAT THE ORBITAL VELOCITY OF THE EARTH AROUND THE SUN, IN AN ELLIPTICAL ORBIT, MUST BE A CONSTANT.

However, upon further reflection, it became

apparent that one significant complication with respect to

the two frames was not dealt with. Specifically, GPS was

compared in the two frames assuming that the earth’s

orbital velocity was constant.

What is the significance of this interim conclusion? We

have shown that, assuming the speed of light is isotropic

in the sun’s frame, the velocity of clocks on the spinning

earth will cause them to be biased by just the amount

needed to make it appear as if the speed of light is

actually isotropic on the earth.

However, the true believer in

SRT can argue that this is simply a coincidence and that it

is still the magic of SRT which automatically causes the

speed of light to be isotropic on the earth. There is no way

to refute his argument in this simplified case where we

have assumed that the direction of the orbital velocity

vector is constant. But, when the change in the orbital

velocity direction is allowed, we get an astonishing result.

By contrast, if SRT/GRT is

correct, we would expect that the clocks on earth and in

the GPS system would require an adjustment for the

effect of the sun’s differential gravitational potential.

**Since clocks on earth and in the GPS system function**

properly by ignoring the effect of the sun’s gravitational

potential, we must conclude that SRT/GRT is wrong.

http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Reference_Material/Ronald_Hatch/Hatch-Clock_Behavior_and_theSearch_for_an_Underlying_Mechanism_for_Relativistic_Phenomena_2002.pdf