The Flat Earth Society

Flat Earth Discussion Boards => Flat Earth Information Repository => Topic started by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:51:13 PM

Title: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:51:13 PM
So, while I’m a REer, I enjoy taking the time to learn FE models. As such, it helps to be able to express them in my own words, and explain them; that’s always a good trick for being able to understand something.
I am making no claims as to the accuracy of any of the models and explanations, simply presenting them as-is. Please do not debate the contents. That’s not really suitable for IR anyway.

This is basically just going to be a place where I write up everything I know about the various models. It won’t necessarily be a complete reference, especially not for a while. It’s limited by how much I can find in the way of detailed explanation, and how much I can understand. Equally, some of the posts may be quite dense. There's not much I can do about that, though I've tried to make it concise.

Honestly it’s as much for personal use as anything, but some people might find it useful to have all the information in one, semi-organized place. I’ve had a document like this since trying to understand the models, but it seemed other people might have a use for it too.
Please navigate by using the sort-of contents below. The direct links to various posts ought to be clear enough, and if you use that instead of scrolling around then I can write the posts in any order, and it allows other people to post in this thread. Please do feel free to post if there’s any point you find unclear, or any topic you’d like to make sure isn’t omitted. Equally, if a FEer would like to fact-check their model, please do so.
This isn’t intended to misrepresent.
This also isn’t meant to exactly be an FAQ, I’m not going to answer every objection to every model, just explain what it is those models contain. If I’ve learnt anything from the main forums, if we start a debate on whether one aspect of one FE model explains reality, we’ll be here for ages. It’s just a reference point so FEers don’t have to explain their models endlessly. This just comes from what I’ve seen and discussions I’ve had over the forums.

It isn't complete yet. Other headings may be added, and I have not yet gotten to all sections.

Miscellaneous
These are bits and pieces that do exist in FE models, but are ones that can be pick-and-mixed to a degree. There’s no sole distinct model that exists for these elements. There may be, for example, multiple explanations of what causes gravity. As many of these aspects are shared between otherwise contradictory model, I give them all here. They’re more common beliefs.
Later sections will give details on more niche FE models.

Explanations for what keeps us on the Earth's surface
Universal Acceleration  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921458#msg1921458)
The Law of Density
 (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2077530#msg2077530)
The movements of stars
Celestial Gravitation  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921460#msg1921460)
Celestial Gears  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921461#msg1921461)
Whirlpools  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921464#msg1921464)
Photoelectric Suspension (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2094876#msg2094876)

Other
Conspiracy  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921467#msg1921467)
Bioluminescence and the Moon (Moonshrimp)  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921470#msg1921470)
Atmospheric Haze (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1925166#msg1925166)
The Ice Wall (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1937665#msg1937665)
The Anti-Moon and Shadow Object (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1977100#msg1977100)
Mach's Principle (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2084388#msg2084388)
Satellites (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2145864#msg2145864)
Bendy light/Electromagnetic Accelerator Theory

The Denpressure Model (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2093612#msg2093612)
This model was developed by forum user Sceptimatic. It’s named for one of the better known aspects of the model, a density-pressure based explanation for what keeps us on the Earth’s surface.

The Model of Matter  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921462#msg1921462)
The Layout of the Earth  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921476#msg1921476)
Denpressure   (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1935684#msg1935684)
 

Dual Earth Theory (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2093614#msg2093614)
This model was developed by forum user JRoweSkeptic. The name was chosen by him. It features a two-sided disc, intended to answer many recurring questions.

Aether  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921466#msg1921466)
The Layout of the Earth  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921471#msg1921471)
Stars and Celestial Objects  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1922154#msg1922154)

Non-Euclidean Model
This is the model championed by Flat Earth Society secretary John Davis, founded on the idea that the Earth is a non-Euclidean surface.

Non-Euclidean Space  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921473#msg1921473)
The Ferrari Effect

Infinite Earth Theory
This model is used by a number of people and, as the name suggests, supposes that the Earth is infinite, and has no edge.
 
Gravity on an Infinite Plane  (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921468#msg1921468)
Expanding Space (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2117350#msg2117350)

Sandokhan's Advanced Flat Earth Theory (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2093618#msg2093618)
This model was developed by forum user Sandokhan, and draws from a number of sources. It has its own thread in the Believers section.

Foreword/Related Reading (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2091553#msg2091553)
Vortex Model of the Atom (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2092810#msg2092810)
The Layout of the Earth and Celestial Bodies (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2092811#msg2092811)

The Biblical Model
This is the model often held by FEers who take their inspiration from the Bible. There is some minor variation, but in general they follow this:

The Layout of the Earth
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:52:32 PM
Universal Acceleration

This is one explanation for gravity. It follows from Einstein’s Equivalence Principle, which is most often illustrated by the following analogy.
If you were in a sealed pod, like an elevator, and could not see the outside world, then you would not be able to tell the difference between being stationary on the Earth’s surface, or being in space and accelerating upwards at 9.8m/s/s. That is, the force exerted by gravity would be indistinguishable from a force that accelerates you in the opposite direction.
If you’re in a car that accelerates, you find that you can get pinned against the chair behind you.

Universal acceleration, UA, follows much the same idea. There is a universal accelerator, that pushes everything in the universe upwards. It accelerates the Earth at a rate of approximately 9.8m/s/s, and so the Earth in turn pushes everything on its surface.
If you throw a ball into the air, it begins by moving slightly faster than the Earth, and the two are travelling upwards. Then the Earth accelerates, until the point comes where they’re moving with equal velocity; this is the apex of the ball’s flight. Then the Earth just accelerates up to meet the object while said object still ascends.

The universal accelerator also accelerates the Sun and stars, and all things we observe above the world.
There is typically a dome-like absence of the accelerator above the Earth, meaning that the objects on the Earth’s surface are not accelerated, save by contact with the Earth. The reason for this gap varies between models. In some, the accelerator is much like a current, and the Earth acts as a blockage. The flow reforms some way up, nonetheless leaving a gap.

The question of what this accelerator is varies between models. It has variously been called a flow of tachyons, aether, and dark energy. The latter is used simply as a placeholder term, as it is in RET: it causes acceleration, but not much more is known about it than that.

It is possible for an object to accelerate endlessly, despite the fact the speed of light functions as a universal speed limit, because at high speeds the formula used to sum velocities is not the same as the Newtonian format. If an object moving with velocity u moves an amount v faster, they are summed by using:
(https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6eb3091ed58441a1f81b65cdc3911cc471084ee4)
Where c is the speed of light, and u=v+u’, making u the sum of both velocities. Note that, for a u’ and v much smaller than the speed of light, this is just u+v. At high speeds however, we can accelerate endlessly and yet never reach c.

Some models believe that the force that keeps us on the Earth’s surface is the same, all over the world. That is, the force we think of as gravity does not vary dependent on location or altitude.
Some models believe that there are variations in the force that keeps us on the Earth’s surface, and that this is because the Earth does not perfectly block the accelerator. There are points where some upward force essentially reaches through the Earth, to apply a slight upwards force to objects. This is of course far overpowered by the fact it is only a mere fraction of the power behind the accelerator. Even so, it causes some places to have less of a downwards force.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:53:54 PM
Celestial Gravitation

Many FEers do not believe gravity, the attraction of mass to mass, exists. If they do, it is believed to be limited: for example, only some kinds of matter may exert a gravitational attraction, or matter may only exert gravitational attraction in specific circumstances. For most models, the Earth does not.
The Cavendish experiment is not always accepted as reliable, but when it is applying the conclusion to mass in general rather than just the specific element tested is not viewed as any more reasonable than assuming, for example, every metal is magnetic.

Some believe that the stars do exert a gravitational force, however. In this case, it is a far weaker force than the one that keeps us on the Earth’s surface, but it is still there.
This would mean that, at higher altitudes, the net downwards force on any object would be weaker due to the attractive force exerted by the stars.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:54:53 PM
Celestial Gears

This model is connected to celestial gravitation. Here, the stars also exert a gravitational force.

First, a word on terminology. The Northern Celestial System are the stars which rotate above the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern Celestial System is, naturally enough, composed of the stars that rotate above the Southern.
The combined gravitational force of a system of stars creates an object akin to a gear. This is not a literal gear, rather it is an entity made of the strong gravitational force that connects all the stars in that system.
This allows for there to be more than one gear. The Northern Celestial System rotates in one direction, while the Southern rotates in the other.

The consequences of this are as follows: we may see stars rotating around more than one distinct point in the sky, and combined with celestial gravitation we will find some small rotational force imparted to objects on the surface of the Earth, in opposite directions on each side of the equator. This is the Coriolis force.
The Sun travels around the point where the gears rub together, and shifts between two ‘tracks,’ moving closer and further from each of the celestial systems. This is what causes seasons.

The exact set-up of these gears will vary based on the map, or approximate map, held to. Bipolar models have a System over each pole, while maps which are centred at one pole and have one system over the centre, and another viewed as a circle with teeth, rotated by a series of smaller gears in between that outer circle and the central gear. The Southern Celestial System would then be the circular ‘gear.’
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:56:23 PM
Matter Under Denpressure

We begin from scratch. The most basic form of matter may be visualized as a hollow ball; or rather, a ball with one small hole in. It is not rigid or solid; rather, it can be contorted and stretched and squashed depending on the forces applied to it.
Now, nature abhors a vacuum, so the default state of such a ball is so expand, so long as it has the energy to do so. A ball with access to no energy will freeze and be stuck in one shape and size, while a ball with plenty of energy (heat) will expand for as long as it can.
If you apply force to a ball, to compress it, you can squash it similarly, and the ball will simply contain potential energy. The moment the force used to compress it lessens, it will expand.

Now then, imagine you have multiple such balls in your hand. You close your hand into a fist, letting none escape, and squeeze: the balls will all be pressed tightly together. In fact, many balls will slide inside each other. As a hole exists in each ball, they will seek to occupy less space (thanks to the force your fist exerts) by sliding through that hole.
This creates an object not unlike a jawbreaker. If you google a cross-section, you’ll observe many balls layered inside one another, on and on. This idea of a jawbreaker is what composes most of the matter we see, under force from, say, the borders of the vessel it’s in, or from air pressure.
If you have many such jawbreakers forming when you squeeze your fist, then when you release your fist all the balls will seek to expand again, and leave one another, the jawbreakers emptying out.

If we fill a jar with various densities of matter, jawbreakers with various different amounts of layers, until the jar is tightly packed, and we shake, then the less dense objects will begin to rise. They require less force to compress, as fewer balls are trying to expand. They’ll be able to squeeze through the gaps, and slowly rise.
We'll get on to why they move in that one direction specifically when we get on to denpressure itself.
It is worth noting, as a companion to this jar analogy, the forces acting on each jawbreaker-molecule. The less dense objects, with fewer layers, are being acted on and being forced to compress, but there would not necessarily be enough force to compress them enough to go inside another object. Similarly, the jawbreaker molecules seek to expand, and the interior layers to expand enough to escape, but to do that they would need to exert a lot more force to compress their surroundings enough to get out. It is not the case that all molecules will equalise their number of layers if there isn't sufficient energy to do so.

There are three states of matter; gas, liquid and solid. Solid matter typically has less energy, and so is trapped in a jawbreaker form. When it is given energy, it manages to expand out, becoming a liquid, and then a gas.
It is known that an object may be made to stay solid at extreme heat when a great deal of pressure is force upon it.  Here, this is because the pressure ensures there is no room for the jawbreakers to expand, regardless of how much energy they have. When the energy of the jawbreakers can overpower the pressure exerted on the object, that is when the state changes.
On a similar, flipside note, then if you bring a jawbreaker to a vast, infinite, empty vacuum then they will expand for so long as they have energy. When that energy is used, they will essentially be solid, even at zero pressure, because they do not have the means to expand any more.

Finally, there is the matter of vibration and frequency. All matter vibrates: that’s all heat is. In a jawbreaker, all the balls are vibrating, and they’re all compressed a different amount, meaning unique combinations of overall frequency are made, for a jawbreaker with each amount of layers.
This is partially what defines an element: the number of layers in the overall jawbreaker. Their properties (from state at a certain temperature, to reactivity…) are determined by their frequencies. However, it is worth noting that as you heat and cool an element, the number of layers in a jawbreaker in fact change. 
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:58:11 PM
Whirlpools

This is often connected to the model of universal acceleration. If it is, often the accelerator, whose current was blocked by the Earth, will have the absence made by the Earth form a dome-type shape. At the bottom is the Earth, and at the top is a point where various flows recombine, and create rotational motion that is not unlike a whirlpool.
These have also been called aetheric whirlpools, for models that use the term aether.

The underlying idea, independent of UA, is just that some entity flows above the Earth in a whirlpool-like form. This creates rotational motion, and it is in this that celestial objects exist.
For example, the stars exist in such a whirlpool. As a result, they will appear to rotate about one point. The same will also hold for the Sun and moon.
In the case of the Sun, however, as it travels in a circle, the radius of this circle changes. This is what causes seasons to change. Sometimes there will be 24 hour sunlight at the central pole, but when the Sun is further out no sunlight would reach it.

The number of whirlpools vary depending on model. There may be one, or the flows may recombine at multiple altitudes. This is used not only to have objects rotating at multiple altitudes, but in some cases to explain how gravity can vary based on altitude. The higher you go, the more upwards force there is.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 03:59:41 PM
 Aether

This is the definition of aether within the Dual Earth model. This is not a universally relevant definition. If you see the term aether used, it might mean something entirely different. The word is also used within Dual Earth Theory (DET), however, so it will be used and defined here, with the understanding that the definition applies only to this one model.

In essence, aether is defined as ‘the fabric of space, following the law that all things flow from high concentrations to low.’
Let’s unpack this.

First, the fabric of space. As those who are familiar with the theory of relativity know, space is not just an abstract dimension: it may be manipulated and altered. In the case of relativity, this manipulation happens because of mass.
If space is the means by which we measure distance between two objects, then clearly more space would mean there is more distance between them, while less space would mean less distance between the objects.

Second, we consider the law. This is behaviour noted to occur everywhere, such as in diffusion, osmosis, pressure systems and thermodynamics. There is a natural tendency for concentrations to want to equalize, reach equilibrium, and the way they do this is by moving from high concentrations to low.

To combine the two, we need a notion of a concentration of space. The easiest analogy is to think of space as a set of coordinate points. If you draw a grid of dots, evenly spaced, then an object may occupy, say, 3 points in a row. If, instead of being drawn on paper, this grid is drawn on elastic, then you can stretch the three dots out to appear further apart than they were before. The object, however, still occupies the same three dots: it is the same size, but might not seem it from the perspective of unstretched dots.
Sparsely packed dots give us a notion of a low concentration. A high concentration is, naturally enough, a lot of these dots pushed together.
All together, this means a high concentration of space will flow towards a low concentration. This means the points themselves move, to try and make sure all the points are evenly dispersed.

A line must be drawn however between a short distance between two objects in a uniform concentration, and a short distance between two objects in a non-uniform concentration. In the former, though there is a short distance and so a small amount of space/aether, it would not cause any flow because the concentration is uniform. Such flow relies on a variation in the concentration, and a short distance is not the same as a low concentration.

One thing it is worth noticing, is that space is frictionless and not intelligent, so the amount that flows from a high concentration to a low concentration will not be the precise amount that is required to even it out. In fact, often too much could flow to a low concentration, meaning that low concentration is now a high concentration, and it must flow back to the low concentration left in its wake (or, more likely, an adjacent high concentration will fill in the new low).
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 04:00:57 PM
Conspiracy

In nearly all cases, FET will require a conspiracy of some description; however the depth of this conspiracy can vary. In general, though, the form of conspiracy can be placed in one or two categories. I use the terminology ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ conspiracy, but I’m not aware of anyone else who does the same. It’s a convenient shorthand for this thread.
It is worth noting that a handful users, most likely those who follow the non-Euclidean model, do not accept that there is a conspiracy of any form.

Weak Conspiracy
This is by far the most common sort in the FES. A weak conspiracy is one where the secret only extends as far as space travel. Space travel is faked for financial and political gain, the former from the money that would be spent on rockets etc, and the latter in the case of the Cold War era origin of space travel. In this case, the conspiracy would not extend beyond a small handful of higher-ups in space agencies, and the astronauts/cosmonauts themselves. There is no reason for it to extend any further than this; some say the President would know if NASA was faking it, but this would not necessarily be the case.
This conspiracy is believed more generally than FET, as well. A number of people, even those who think the world is round, believe at least some of space travel is faked.
Images from space of a globe simply showed what it was the scientists expected to see. As RET is the dominant theory, photos from space depict it.
There is no other aspect to the conspiracy, in the ‘weak’ formulation. All other scientific incongruities are simply honest mistakes. Only space travel is faked.
This does not require a unified shadowy organization. Some suppose that space travel is impossible under their FE model, and so each company that tries it fails, and then lies to save face with no inkling that all of space travel is a lie.

Strong Conspiracy
This model is rarer, but not unheard of. More often than not, it is held by those who came to FET as a culmination of multiple counts of what are called conspiracy theories. In this case, the conspiracy extends beyond just space travel. For example, some (often older) models posit the existence of 'ice wall guards,' people hired to prevent investigation into the rim of the Earth, in models where there is an accessible ice wall.
As is always the case with conspiracies, the precise details of who hides what and why are unknown. If such secrets were widespread, it would hardly be a conspiracy. Often, though, is it believed there is some class aware of the true shape of the Earth, and acting to hide this.
The motive may be anything from religion, to social control.
Research will be quashed, scientific knowledge misrepresented. In the case of the strong conspiracy, often it is believed the true map of the flat Earth is the depiction of the azimuthal equidistant projection in the UN logo.

Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 04:02:11 PM
Gravity on an Infinite Plane

One FE model features the Earth going on endlessly. While the part of the Earth that we live in is only some finite section, the matter of the Earth itself is endless.

In this case, the typical model of gravity, mass attracting mass, may apply.
There is no way for an infinite plane to be pulled into the shape of a ball. Similarly, the horizontal component of the pull of gravity on any object on the disc’s surface would be balanced: there’s the same amount of mass to each side, meaning a net force of zero.
The downwards force of gravity caused by an infinite plane is dependent solely on the depth of said plane. The thickness can be calculated, I believe, to be approximately 4,250km.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 04:04:05 PM
Moonshrimp

This is a rather light-hearted term, but the gist is simple enough. The moon is inhabited by bioluminescent creatures, colloquially referred to as moonshrimp, though the exact details of the form of life are not known.

Much of this model is little more than speculation. There is no firm knowledge as to what ecosystem or food chain, if any, that they are a part of, though some have made some deductions.
However, comparisons have been drawn to the Earth-based alpheidae shrimp, hence the name, which are capable of causing sonoluminescence: causing a tremendously bright flash of light. A large quantity of such creatures would be able to illuminate large areas constantly.
It is also said that there is bioluminescent fungus. This idea could stand alone, but is also used in combination with moonshrimp, positing the moonshrimp as a species that kill and consume said fungus. This would account for how the light from the moon can vary in brightness.
Further, the shrimp migrate to where the fungus grows, accounting for waxing and waning.

Various other assumptions about the life cycles of these creatures, such as breeding seasons, can be used to explain such observations as lunar eclipses.
More general bioluminescence could take the place of sonoluminescence, but there are a number of models.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 04:05:40 PM
The DE Earth

This follows entirely from the Dual Earth model of aether.

Firstly, if an object is and has never been under any force, then it is stationary. This means it occupies a fixed point in space; it takes a force for the object to gain speed. However, DET allows space to flow, so an object may appear to move with reference to another object without requiring forces; this is because the objects themselves remain occupying the same points in space, it is just those points that move.
This a crucial point.

Under DET, the Earth is composed essentially of two discs. These formed in a low concentration of aether. In between the two there is the lowest concentration of all, but the higher your altitude the higher the concentration becomes. The maximum thickness is just past the edges of the Earth, and this may be viewed as the ‘default’ thickness of aether. Right in the centre of the Earth, in the middle of an otherwise low concentration, is a pocket of thicker aether. This exists because of the flow of aether, explained in the relevant section and detailed below.
As previously stated, aether flows from high concentrations to low. As such, from both above and below aether flows towards the centre of the Earth. The point where these two flows meet is the higher concentration in the middle. However, as explained before, the flow of a high concentration leaves a low in its wake. This must in turn be filled in by the adjacent aether, which in turn leaves another gap to fill in…
Because of this, the aether that flowed to the middle of the Earth has the opportunity to flow out again, through the sides of the Earth, to rejoin a current that flows up or down, and flows inwards; after all, the environs of the Earth are a much lower concentration than all the space that surrounds.
As the more distant aether is ‘unaware’ of the low concentration, only the adjacent aether knows to flow.

Each side of the disc basically reflects the other. A dome-like shape may be sketched out from the concentrations of aether; the currents from all around flowing inwards. Where the opposing flows meet, a whirlpool (rotational motion) results. Multiple whirlpools form, each above the other. As each of these whirlpools turn, syncing and desyncing, they alter the slight tilt to the disc.

This is the basic set-up. Next is what this means in practise.
The rim of the disc is the equator. It may easily be crossed however. If you stand with one foot on either side of the equator, one would be on, say, the top right hand side of the Earth, while the other would be on the bottom left. Each side is joined by the low concentration of aether through the Earth; there is no space in which to notice any discontinuity.
The downwards flow is what causes gravity. The space all objects exist in descends. The higher you are, the more whirlpools you are past, and the less powerful the downwards force. Similarly, the closer you are to the poles, the stronger the force is as it is at the central point of multiple flows inwards.
Crossing whirlpools is minor at lower altitudes, but the higher you go the greater the difference between them. At extreme altitudes crossing a whirlpool will tear you apart as part of you will be moving at a different rate to the part of you that has not yet crossed. This is why space travel is said to be impossible under DET.

This downwards flow is in turn why we cross the equator. Instead of just stepping out off the disc, we are pulled down, and when you reach the edge of the disc you would be pulled inside, and you would follow that direction on to the far side (and through the Earth, again due to the direction of the flow). Due to the low concentration you move through however, you notice nothing. It happens essentially instantaneously.
The same happens for people and planes. While there is a low concentration inside the Earth, you would have to be at an extreme altitude to reach it by crossing the equator.
An object right in the middle, however, would appear to be both above and below the Earth at the same time. It occupies the same kind of location as a person with a foot on either side of the equator.

The tilt of the Earth causes the seasons. The varying focus of the whirlpools also causes tides, reaching spring and neap tides depend on how synchronized they are.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 04:09:37 PM
Non-Euclidean Space

Euclidean space, how we conventionally think of space, can be defined a number of ways. Perhaps the most intuitive is to think of it as the space in which Pythagoras’ theorem holds. If you have x and y axis and you choose two coordinates (for simplicity, let’s say (0,0) and (3,4)) then to find the distance between those points you note that you can form a triangle, and the distance between them is the length of the hypotenuse, easily found by Pythagoras’ theorem. Here, it gives 5. Thus, Pythagoras gives us the distance between any two points.
Non-Euclidean space may simply be thought of as one that calculates distance in another way. This would allow for, for example, a surface that exhibits no curvature to also have a triangle with three right angles, despite the impossibility of that in Euclidean space.

More technically, we can look at Euclid’s postulates. One states that any line segment may be extended infinitely into a straight line. If we alter this we can create a non-Euclidean space where any line segment can be extended in a straight line to intersect itself; that is, walk far enough in one direction and you’ll end up where you started.

Typically, this is all the model states; that in non-Euclidean space you can easily get the distances to explain flight times, and even have two distinct poles.

I should emphasize the following is not inherently the model, but it proves a convenient way for an REer to see how this could work. If you accept RET, then an easy way to create a non-Euclidean FE model is with a mathematical mapping. There are a number of mathematical ways to project the surface of a sphere onto a plane, or a plane onto a sphere. To extend that, you can map all of RET to a flat disc in non-Euclidean space, essentially by ‘unpeeling’ the Earth, and allowing for sufficient travel in one direction to bring you back where you started. It would similarly warp space. This mathematical mapping, as it follows on directly from a model you believe to be accurate, would in turn perfectly explain how light moves, how the moon and planets move…

However, it is not right to say that this model is just RET. It is a flat disc, in non-Euclidean space, not a globe in Euclidean space (although technically space isn’t Euclidean under RET, but we’ll get to that).
A good analogy here is the difference between heliocentrism and geocentrism. Ultimately it is just a choice of reference frame; choose one in which the Earth is stationary, and you can mathematically describe everything just fine. The model works. The reason RET favours heliocentrism now is explanatory power; heliocentrism can explain why the Earth goes around the Sun, and explain retrograde motion, while the geocentric explanation is questionable.
With the non-Euclidean model, it is the same. Mathematically it all works, the only real questions are why anything behaves the way it does. The path of light depends on the space it’s in, so that isn’t an issue. Celestial objects, such as the Sun, however are said to move at a constant speed in a straight line. In the non-Euclidean space defined, this will take the form of an orbit, an object ending up where it started. As it is not altering velocity, no new force is required to maintain it.

Theoretically the non-Euclidean model can also allow for space travel. The moon is still the moon, orbits are perfectly possible, and due to the path light takes it is more than possible to view a globe from space. As I said, it is possible to create a non-Euclidean model where everything would look the same as in RET.
It is worth emphasizing again that the non-Euclidean model will not necessarily line up with RET. Many might still disagree with distances, or disagree that space travel occurs, or have any number of other departures.

The last question would be why space behaves like this. However, space is not necessarily going to be Euclidean; we simply assume that because it works that way on small scales. In fact, the space we live in under RET is Minkowski space; its properties are rather different to Euclidean space, and there is no reason to treat Euclidean as the default except for the fact we are used to doing so.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 21, 2017, 04:12:45 PM
The Earth in the Denpressure Model

The Earth itself is a flat disc. It is centred at the North Pole, and right in the middle is a hot, bright light source formed of carbon, which functions the same way as a carbon arc light. This is the primary source of heat for the whole Earth, providing heat from under the ground also.
When you are far away from this light source, you get closer and closer to absolute zero. At a certain distance, even the air itself will freeze. This forms a dome, a solid barrier no human can reach because of the sheer cold of the temperatures it exists it. It extends around and above the disc of the Earth.
The light source is surrounded by crystal, which scatters the light up in a myriad specks. These reflect off the dome, creating what we see as stars. Similarly, the moon and Sun are also reflections of this central light. The Sun is the brightest, and so the hottest. The crystal is rotating, causing the motion of all the various lights.

Essentially, at the very centre of the world is a graphite electrode rapidly ascending and descending, beneath a layer of crystal. This crystal too ascends and descends, altering the inclination of the reflected stars, Sun and moon and thus being responsible for seasons.

The point where the Sun shines on the dome is heated up. With this extra warmth, the dome evaporates, rising up; then, when the Sun moves on, it cools down and refreezes again. In this way the dome can be said to ‘breathe,’ the roof going up and down.
As this follows from the denpressure model of molecules, the least dense molecules rise, and expand more and more as they do. When they run out of the energy to expand, this is where the dome forms.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Twerp on June 21, 2017, 08:02:46 PM
Am I allowed to post here?

This is a cool thread.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 22, 2017, 06:17:39 AM
Am I allowed to post here?

This is a cool thread.
Thanks!
Always appreciated the FEers that have easy access to their model, so you don't have to keep asking the same questions that've been asked before. Hopefully this'll help some of them, and hopefully let REers make more relevant arguments.

Feel free to post, though I'd rather not get into a debate of what works/doesn't work here, they go on forever. But if there's something you want covered, or part of it that's unclear, let me know. The way this is set up, the original post will link to the right topic, no matter what discussions go on in between. So long as I keep the posts updated, it ought to work.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Space Cowgirl on June 22, 2017, 08:04:18 AM
Thanks for all the work you've put into this!

Also, if anyone wants to debate what is in this thread they should start a thread in the appropriate forum.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 23, 2017, 08:27:46 AM
Stars Under DET

According to the DE model, everything off of the Earth’s surface is one particular type of entity. The variations are only in size and location. This entity we will call a star. It is an approximately round object, with a metal interior and rocky exterior, and the metal core is visible at some point on the outside.
These exist in the aetheric whirlpools above and below the Earth. Within these whirlpools, the flow of aether is not entirely uniform. Thus, some points in space are moving at a different rate to another point in space; so long as the relative motion caused by this is not too large, the structure of the star will not be damaged. However, friction will result from particles rubbing together, heating the metal until it is white hot. 
As a result, the star has one lit face, while the rest of it, covered in rock, is not illuminated, rendering it a spotlight-type object.

The stars rotate around two separate points, one above the North Pole, one above the South. All of them are lit like this.
As mentioned before, an object in the very centre of the Earth will appear above and below the disc, much like someone with a foot on either side of the equator. There is one of these stars there. Instead of circling, as it is in the centre it simply rotates on the spot, shining down onto the top and bottom of the disc, before turning away and appearing ‘cut off’ by the rock that surrounds it. This star is the Sun.
There are other stars inside the Earth, which are called the moon and the planets. They rotate around the Sun, but from a perspective on Earth may sometimes appear behind the Sun, or in front.

The Sun, as a rotating metal core of sorts to the Earth, is responsible for its magnetic field. The moon’s rotation is responsible for its phases; when it is seen side-on we might only glimpse a crescent of the light, for example.

All meteors are stars like this that did not get to form properly, and were torn apart when they moved between whirlpools.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: sceptimatic on June 23, 2017, 10:35:47 AM
Well done Jane. I think you've done fantastically well and I appreciate the effort and time you've put into all of what you have in this entire topic compendium..
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 23, 2017, 11:07:53 AM
Well done Jane. I think you've done fantastically well and I appreciate the effort and time you've put into all of what you have in this entire topic compendium..
Thank you, I hope I accurately represented your model. Please feel free to correct me if I missed anything.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: 54N on June 26, 2017, 08:41:27 AM
Isn't a model supposed to be a representation of reality,  whether it's a mathematical model,  graphical model or indeed papier-mache and coathanger wire model?
All the above seem like wild hypotheses rather than models of anything.   
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Tessa Yuri on June 26, 2017, 05:17:42 PM
Just a thought, could there be a "Return to top" function at the bottom of each post, to save me from having to scroll all the way back up every time?

Brilliant work though - very informative and helpful.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Space Cowgirl on June 26, 2017, 05:30:30 PM
Just a thought, could there be a "Return to top" function at the bottom of each post, to save me from having to scroll all the way back up every time?

Brilliant work though - very informative and helpful.

Do you not have the black circle with the up arrow in the lower right corner?
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Tessa Yuri on June 26, 2017, 05:36:34 PM
Just a thought, could there be a "Return to top" function at the bottom of each post, to save me from having to scroll all the way back up every time?

Brilliant work though - very informative and helpful.

Do you not have the black circle with the up arrow in the lower right corner?

Sshhh I am very intelligent.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on June 26, 2017, 06:28:37 PM
Just a thought, could there be a "Return to top" function at the bottom of each post, to save me from having to scroll all the way back up every time?

Brilliant work though - very informative and helpful.

Do you not have the black circle with the up arrow in the lower right corner?

Sshhh I am very intelligent.

I've been on this forum years and this is the first time I've noticed that. So, uh, you're not alone.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Son of Orospu on June 27, 2017, 09:38:33 AM
Just a thought, could there be a "Return to top" function at the bottom of each post, to save me from having to scroll all the way back up every time?

Brilliant work though - very informative and helpful.

Do you not have the black circle with the up arrow in the lower right corner?

On my phone it is at the lower left next to the page numbers and says, "Go Up."
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on July 02, 2017, 08:00:38 AM
Atmospheric Haze

This is based on the fact that air is not perfectly transparent. Over short distances you don’t notice anything, but over long distances you’re looking through more and more air, and it becomes harder to make things out clearly due to the water vapour and the like in the medium you’re looking through.
This is why we cannot see on endlessly. Even if there were no obstacles between you and an object in the distance, even though the Earth would be flat you couldn’t see it through the accumulated haze.

The impact of atmospheric haze is greater at ground level, however, as air is thinner at higher altitudes. As such, if you want to see further (or be seen from further away) it is beneficial to ascend. The higher you go the thinner the air and the atmospheric haze are, and so the easier it is to see or be seen.
Similarly, if you look up you can see the more distant Sun, moon and stars despite how far away they are because the haze is much thinner above you. At sea level though, haze can obscure far more easily.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on July 28, 2017, 07:57:07 AM
Denpressure

This follows on from the rest of the denpressure model; both the model of matter, and the layout of the Earth. It is the explanation for what keeps us on the Earth's surface under this model, named for the two key components: density, and pressure.

The molecules in the air seek to expand; this exerts pressure on everything it touches. However, it would not do so equally in all directions; they are typically free to expand upwards, until they reach the point where they have no more energy and freeze, forming the dome. As the sole major source of heat in this model is the Sun, the further a molecule is from the Sun the more it has expanded, until it freezes. Nearer the Sun, molecules have the energy to compress and push against and inside one another.
Given the location of the Sun in the denpressure model, this in turn means there is more (and denser) air closer to the Earth's surface. The higher you go the less there is, and the further out you go the less there is.
This creates a kind of pyramid-stack; at the bottom are a whole host of molecules, but the higher up the stack you go the less there are.

The first question you might ask is why we are pressed to the Earth's surface, rather than any nearby wall regardless of inclination. This is tied to the Sun.
A useful analogy now is that of an inflatable chamber. Picture a large, flat metal circle with stretchy rubber lain over it and attached at the sides. It begins flat; then, when you pump air in, the rubber will expand up, and up, until it forms a dome-like chamber.
If you were inside said vessel during the inflation, you would find yourself pinned to the metal surface.
Now, if you were left inside the chamber for some time after the inflation had finished, the air would even out, and you'd have equal pressure acting on all sides of you; this is due to the lack of a force preventing the air from reaching equilibrium.
In the denpressure model, the movement of the Sun prevents the air from settling down, perpetually exciting some of it, varying based on time of day. In turn, this means the dome of the Earth is much like a chamber as described above perpetually being inflated, and so keeping everything pinned down to one surface.

The second question you might ask is why some objects seem heavier than others.
So far we've only covered the pressure half of the model; this is where we move on to density. All objects are, partially, porous according to the denpressure model. There are tiny, tiny little holes that can fit just molecules inside. As the air seeks to expand, it takes the opportunity to expand into these holes.
The pressure exerted by the air is based on how much air is displaced. It can be thought of as a kind of buoyancy. The less dense an object, the more porous it is, and so the more air molecules are inside those holes and the less air is displaced.
Thus the force exerted by denpressure is based upon two factors; the volume of an object, and the density of said object. The larger an object's volume the more air it displaces, and the greater an objects density the more air is displaced, so increase either of those factors and the force exerted by denpressure, the weight of the object, increases also.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: SGExtracts710 on July 31, 2017, 09:25:16 AM
Atmospheric Haze

This is based on the fact that air is not perfectly transparent. Over short distances you don’t notice anything, but over long distances you’re looking through more and more air, and it becomes harder to make things out clearly due to the water vapour and the like in the medium you’re looking through.
This is why we cannot see on endlessly. Even if there were no obstacles between you and an object in the distance, even though the Earth would be flat you couldn’t see it through the accumulated haze.

The impact of atmospheric haze is greater at ground level, however, as air is thinner at higher altitudes. As such, if you want to see further (or be seen from further away) it is beneficial to ascend. The higher you go the thinner the air and the atmospheric haze are, and so the easier it is to see or be seen.
Similarly, if you look up you can see the more distant Sun, moon and stars despite how far away they are because the haze is much thinner above you. At sea level though, haze can obscure far more easily.

and BOOM goes the Dynamite!!! Couldn't have said this better myself... just like when people RE and FE Alike ALWAYS turn to the "looking at a city on the other side of water like 45 miles away...." when NO ONE takes into account the SWELL of water as it heaves up and down.... this 100% make any sea level measurement VERY VERY VERY Inaccurate! that's why you cannot "see the bottom" of some buildings, or an Ocean Freighter off in the distance you cannot see the whole hull of the ship, and that's the easiest explanation yet they all still say itca cause of the Curvature bahaha yet this is SIMPLE physics... smh, people really cannot take the MOST simplistic Science and adhere to it!
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 03, 2017, 05:07:06 AM
Ice Wall

As it sounds, this is a wall made up of (usually/predominantly) ice, though there are a number of variations. The basic gist is that all around the known Earth there is a wall composed of ice. Sometimes this is at the rim of the Earth, while in others it's simply the border around our section and there's land beyond it.
The height of the wall varies. Sometimes it's just enough to keep the water in, sometimes it's high enough to render travel beyond impossible. Sometimes it goes high enough to contain the air. In some models there is in fact a tremendous dome, the walls ascending high enough and curving in to meet.

The formation of the wall varies. In some models it forms so far away from the Sun that the water has no choice but to freeze. In models with universal acceleration, it can be formed similarly to this but there is also the fact that anything that goes over the edge of the Earth will also be accelerated upwards (and often accelerated harder than the Earth, with nothing to dampen the force). Should this freeze, it could naturally result in a rather high wall.
The latter could also happen with rocks and dirt. The ice wall is not always said to be completely ice.

According to some, the ice wall is reflective and when sunlight shines up it, it reflects as though through a tunnel of mirrors to shine light all around the rim of the Earth.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on October 28, 2017, 04:26:18 PM
Anti-Moon and Shadow Object

In some models these are the same object, while in others they are entirely distinct.

The shadow object is a celestial body that, as the name suggests, emits no light. It travels across the sky and can only be detected by the absence of light, making it very difficult to observe.
While solar eclipses are explained by the moon passing in front of the Sun, lunar eclipses are said to be caused by this shadow object passing between the moon and Sun, or sometimes just passing in front of the moon.
Often the shadow object is said to orbit around the Sun, very closely to it. This also accounts for it being hard to observe; celestial objects near the Sun will be blotted out by the light emanated from it. In some models it is hypothesized that it may in fact be a known celestial object, such as Mercury or Venus. In models such as this it has been calculated to be five to ten miles in diameter.
During a lunar eclipse the shadow object passes between the Sun and moon, and as it is closer to the Sun its penumbra is cast over the moon.

The anti-moon has an entirely separate function. It exists beneath the disc of the Earth, rotating in its own way, and exerting a gravitational influence that affects or causes tides.
Sometimes there is said to be an anti-sun also, formalising a parallel with the bodies above the Earth, but this is substantially rarer.
In some models the anti-moon and shadow object are one and the same. The anti-moon’s path will take it around, influencing the seas, before it arcs over above the disc and passes in front of the moon, before descending again. Exact data regarding its size, proximity to the Sun and such are less clear under these models.

These objects are not always the same. Some models will have one with a different explanation for the other’s effects, some will have both as distinct entities, some will have them combined, and others still will have neither.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on July 13, 2018, 05:40:02 AM
The Law of Density

This explanation for gravity is less common on this site, but is the dominant one elsewhere. At a basic level, where gravity posits an attraction between mass and mass, this states that not all directions are equal and that there is significance to the direction 'down' over any other. On a flat Earth, this would make more sense.

The idea is that the driving force behind objects going down is their density rather then their mass. An object's motion is dictated by the density of their surroundings; if an object is denser, it descends. If it is less dense, it will go up.
This is best demonstrated with reference to water. Less dense rock, like pumice, floats, while denser rock will sink immediately. However with salt water, where molecules of salt exist throughout the liquid and thus make it denser, more things will be able to float.
Should an object be put in water with a sufficient amount of salt that their densities are equal, this theory states that the object will essentially be weightless.

Given that everything is typically denser than the air, the medium that surrounds us, we are forced down to the Earth. Less dense gases meanwhile ascend.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on July 29, 2018, 01:05:03 PM
Note
Assuming most people reading this thread are going to be using the links in the contents, I'm keeping these notes here. There are typos and small mistakes dotted throughout, and the format was made as I was going along so the layout is terrible. Read the actual AFET posts for a better overview. These notes are just here for personal reference.

It begins... This post, and likely the following few, are going to be different to start with. I need to keep my notes somewhere, and this way at least there are interim notes. This is probably going to be the trickiest model to pare down to its essentials, as with the other posts I'm just going to be focused on the layout of the Earth and the observations this explains, not making arguments for or against. It'll be compressed to begin with, and a lot of the chronology focused posts omitted to focus purely on the Earth's shape. As I learn more about it, using this as a reference, hopefully I can arrange it into a better description.
It's not meant to misrepresent, though I'm working from archived threads where not all the relevant links were archived, and going through a lot of terminology so mistakes are entirely possible.
If I make any error, please do let me know.

I imagine this is going to need a foreword when it's done. I'm cutting out a lot of material. If you're interested I do recommend Sandokhan's thread, he gives a lot of accounts of experiments and data that I'm omitting here in the interests of just giving an overview of how the Earth works. Equally, there are a lot of different terms for various entities which I'm cutting out.

Sandokhan's Advanced Flat Earth Theory
The Earth is a flat disc, centred on the Sea of Marmara. Antarctica is an island. Around the known Earth is a ring of land, populated by animals and plants, named as the continent Antichtone, and beyond this ring is a vast sea that was known of in ancient times and is the source of the Earth's water. The Earth is in the centre of the universe, is the sole planet, and is entirely stationary.
There are two domes. The first comes down on the outside of this sea; on the outside of this First Dome is a rotational layer of ether, and in the dome there are six gates in the East, and six corresponding in the west. The stars, Sun and moon pass through these gates.
Surrounding the first dome is a second dome; all of what we think of as the universe is contained within the second dome. The first dome is composed of a very dense layer of aether and ether. The Sun and all similar objects never pass inside the first dome.
The Sun's orbit is composed of arches. It rises from beyond Japan, illuminates half the Earth's surface, and sets past Antarctica, where it then rises again the complete its orbit over the other semicircle of the Earth's surface. The Sun does indeed set.
The map is:
(https://web.archive.org/web/20090831201231im_/http://geocities.com/levelwater/africabrazil.gif)
The circumference of the flat Earth is approximately a little under 40,000km.

Now, on the aforementioned six gates theory, these mark the Sun's progress throughout the year. The Sun passes through each gate for approximately thirty days at a time (six in the east, six in the west), before moving on to the next, and the next; they compose the distances between the tropic. Each day it rises through one, and sets through an opposite on the far side of the Earth. The gates map out the period from summer to winter solstice, and from winter to summer solstice.
There are thirty windows associated with each gate. Each gate is 1048km in arclength, and so each window is approximately 35.4km. The axial precession of the Sun is a gauge of what part of each window it travels through. When the Sun reaches the final part of a window, all celestial objects will be as they were originally. At this point it will be possible to see the moon as a separate entity during a solar eclipse.
The moon receives its energy from the Sun.


The Sun emits high frequency electric energy into the low pressure gas in the upper atmosphere causing the luminescence observed at sunrise. Thus a setting Sun swiftly becomes a rising one. Further, these electrical currents are the Birkeland currents associated with the Earth's magnetic field. They also affect comets, (insert more on electric comet theory here when it comes to writing up).
There are Birkeland currents throughout space.

The Sun, moon and all stars are flat disks. The Sun, moon and (for reference of scale) Jupiter have a diameter of 618m. The Sun is 10km up.
The moon, Mercury and Venus rotate around the Sun, though Venus formerly orbited Jupiter. Meanwhile the Sun, as well as Mars, Jupiter and Saturn rotate above the Earth. The Sun does indeed set.
Historically there was a third star in the Sirius cluster, which exploded into two halves. In their new movement patterns, one half (termed Black Sun) causes the solar eclipse, the other (the Shadow Moon) the lunar eclipse. Before this point the Sun and moon both shone with equal intensity and the Earth had 24 hour daylight. Fifty years after this cataclysm was the Great Flood.
The asteroid belt was formed when Jupiter collided with the second of these two halves.
Both Jupiter and Venus emit bosons.
There are two other celestial bodies, one over each pole (the North Pole, the receptive one, located north of Greenland. the South Pole, the emissive one, over Antarctica, which is larger than commonly believed, not covered by ice and inaccessible). These cause the Aurora and give light to their respective poles at certain times of the year, but their orbits never take them far. The body over the North Pole is itself named Aurora.

Satellites do orbit, and are powered by a device that triggers laevorotatory subquarks via an electrical current (the Biefield-Brown effect).

Aether is a universal medium, a fluid, filling all of space, and through it flows ether, which is ultimately the energy source for everything. It is described by means of an analogy; according to conventional science, atoms feature a kind of perpetual motion, with electrons constantly moving. Ether is the energy source that allows for this motion to happen. Ether will be better defined below. Aether, it has multiple densities, and there are many layers of it between us and the Sun.
When light passes through these different densities of aether, it is refracted. Light travels through aether akin to the way sound waves travel through matter.
Ether flows through aether into physical objects; this causes a pushing force, gravity. This pushing force could not result in rotational motion however, so the force affecting the Sun, moon and stars is somewhat different. Instead they exist on the other side of a barrier and are subject to rotational gravity from ether.
The variation in the pushing force, the telluric currents, is responsible for tides.

The following is a subquark, composed of ten vibrating strings:
(https://esotericscience.org/diagrams/5a1-Subatomic-Particle.jpg)
These are made of closed loops. The direction in which they rotate is also important; those which rotate left are called laevorotatory, while those that rotate right are called dextrorotatory. They could also be called positively and negatively charged. This rotation, along with the shape of the subquark, creates a vortex that could be receptive (for dextrorotatory subquarks/negative charges), drawing in ether, or emissive (for laevorotatory).  Neither subquark is exclusively emissive or receptive, just predominantly so.
An electrical current is caused by ether flowing along through these vortices, from emissive to receptive; a conductor is a material in which the subquarks are lines up to allow bosons to be transmitted from one to the next. . Magnetic fields are similar, because caused by the 'double helix' of positive and negatively charged/laevorotatory and dextrorotatory vortices affecting the flow of strings of bosons through a subquark. The difference between it an electricity is that electricity is a subquark flow through some conductor, while magnetism is external.
Magnetism can be viewed as two streams spinning around each other, one going to the North Pole, the other to the South. This general principle, as would be expected, is the same for handheld magnets and the planet's magnetic field. Of these two streams, only one is studied by modern science, the electromagnetic stream. The other stream that runs counter is the gravitational flow.
The Earth's magnetic field is composed of a subquark flow that begins at one pole, goes through the centre of the Earth, and reaches the other.
All of space is filled by these torsion fields, these vortices, and they affect one another. The aether is composed of these molecular vortices.
All matter is composed of both laevorotatory and dextrorotatory subquarks. For example, a hydrogen atom is composed of eighteen, nine of each spin.
This allows for hydrogen to not in fact be the lightest element; in fact, there are two lighter, both unacknowledged by mainstream science The heavier is named Koronium by Dmitri Mendeleev. Koronium is prominent in the Sun's corona, hence its name, and is formed of two quarks (rather than the three of hydrogen), and instead of the negative charge being ascribed to one electron as in the mainstream model, this charge is instead divisible. Further, koronium is already 'imploded,' composed not of whole protons but rather just quarks, and further is completely imploded, not merely partiallly imploded as happens when other elements undergo torsion/electrical fields etc. As such, any gravitational force has no effect on it, as its antigravitational force is active.
Lighter still, also named by Mendeleev, is Newtonium, emitted by the Black Sun. This is the lightest element of all, composed only of strings of subquarks.

X-rays are emitted by the Sun, not because of high heat, but because of electromagnetic particles being accelerated through its ether field. That is, their source is electrical.

Dextrorotatory subquarks absorb aether, laevorotatory subquarks emit it.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Space Cowgirl on July 29, 2018, 01:48:19 PM
I cannot wait to read the rest of your study of sandokhan's model. I have tried to read his thread several times, but there are so many links and other stuff that I always give up.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 02, 2018, 06:31:06 AM
Mach's Principle

Formulated by Ernst Mach, this is most commonly expressed with the following:

"You are standing in a field looking at the stars. Your arms are resting freely at your side, and you see that the distant stars are not moving. Now start spinning. The stars are whirling around you and your arms are pulled away from your body. Why should your arms be pulled away when the stars are whirling? Why should they be dangling freely when the stars don't move?"

This was one of Einstein's inspiration for the Theory of Relativity, and basically states an equivalence between rotating reference frames in a similar fashion to the equivalence principle's statement on acceleration. Applied to FET, it is used to explain instances of the Coriolis Effect.
The principle states that if you are on a rotating Earth surrounded by stationary stars, that effect would be identical to being on a stationary Earth surrounded by a rotating universe. This is often connected to celestial gravitation and celestial gears.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 09, 2018, 10:20:41 AM
And I think the post has gotten too long as the site crashes whenever I try to edit.

So, the next half:


A subquark is composed of over fourteen million bosons, and more antibosons. Boson strings travel through the ether as longitudinal waves.
These may, for simplicity's sake, be imagined as a bubble that trails a 'tail' of energy. When a boson enters a subquark it shrinks down to just be this energy, which coalesces when it emerges from the subquark to again be a bubble. It is this 'tail' that forms a boson or antiboson.

Forming every boson are two truncated pyramids (that is, pyramids with a flat surface in place of the point at the apex, as though the peak was cut away), facing towards each other. Between them their apexes, miniature pyramids themselves, rotating in opposite directions and forming a shape called a merkabah. They appear like:
(http://www.eaglespiritministry.com/pd/howto/images/mt_01.gif)
The downwards facing pyramid produces aether, while the upwards facing activates it. Typical bosons produce more ether than aether, but dark bosons, those that form dark matter, produce more aether than ether.
If a quark is viewed as subquarks connected by lines, those lines are bosons.

There are four stages of ether, each composed of strings of various fundamentals: reflector ether, composed of subquarks of either spin; luminiferous ether, composed of quarks; vital ether, composed of mesons; and finally chemical ether, composed of baryons.
Each of these is more complex than the previous, subquarks being the ultimately building blocks of each.
The closed loops that make up a subquark are composed of bosons and antibosons, and never touch.
Below even subquarks, aether is also a state of ether, the medium that the subquark strings travel with.

When an object rotates at a high speed, it implodes slightly; the atoms break down into baryons, the fourth stage of ether. The outer surface of a rotating object will have more of these imploded atoms, attracting what are called Whittaker potential ether waves to it. This creates a vortex around the object, shielding it from the dextrorotatory strings that cause pressure-gravity.
Something similar happens when a current is passed through an object; in this case it activates the laevorotatory subquarks, but the effect is similar, reducing the effect of pressure gravity. In each case a torsion field is formed around an object, shaped like two overlapping cones:
(https://basharspacetimeantenna.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/rendered-sta.jpg)

Gravity is caused by the pressure exerted by the ether flowing into matter. For the Earth, this takes the form of telluric currents, observed natural electric currents that cover the Earth's surface.
At higher altitudes, the pressure of laevorotatory subquarks diminishes as laevorotatory strings have an increased rate of vibration. Thus, pressure is less. Dextrorotatory subquarks are gravitational, laevorotatory antigravitational.
If a bottle is sealed at the top of a mountain, say, it is sealed where laevorotatory subquarks are more active. When you bring it down, the emissive vortices of dextrorotatory subquarks within the bottle are stronger, and basically cause it to implode.
At high altitudes, there are more laevorotatory, emissive subquarks and so the density of aether (the underlying medium) increases. The highest density of aether is between the first dome and the outer, second dome.
The sum of the antigravitational force and the gravitational force always adds up to a constant.

Thus, the multiple effects mentioned above are explained. There is a pressure gravity, 'terrestrial gravity' caused by ether flowing into receptive, dextrorotatory subquarks, a force which is dominant closer to the Earth's surface. Dextrorotatory subquarks can, over the long term, decay objects (some elements are more susceptible, are they are what we call radioactive. Radioactivity can be stifled by triggering laevorotatory subquarks). Further, this decomposition effect is what has caused the ice caps to melt; global temperature has not increased, but rather the vibration of dextrorotatory subquarks has increased. Laevorotatory subquarks counter this; in consequence, this explains why the amino acids that make up almost all proteins are what are called L (for laevo) proteins. Pressure is perhaps the most intuitive way of thinking of this, but gravity is better viewed as the rate at which ether is absorbed by the receptive vortices.
Then there is rotational gravity, caused by how, on the far side of the first dome, laevorotatory subquarks are just as active. Levorotatory subquarks have an antigravity effect due to emitting ether too.
There are ways to bias whether an object will emit or receive; imparting torsion/rotation (DePalma Spinning Ball experiment), high electrical tension (Biefeld-Brown effect), or sound waves can be used to trigger laevorotatory subquarks and cause emission even close to the Earth's surface.

On the Whittaker scalar potential waves mentioned earlier, Whittaker was a physicist whose work state that electromagnetic and gravitational fields can be decomposed into two scalar potential functions, and in turn that scalar potentials are composed of a lattice of bidirectional longitudinal waves: these waves are the ether, laevorotatory and dextrorotatory strings of subquarks.

This notion of gravity has a connection to time. Following from the work of Russian scientist Nikolai Kozyrev, time is not a passive, dimensionless concept; it has direction, allowing cause and effect to be differentiated. Time enters into things by allowing cause to progress to effect, and the orientation of time alters the subsequent effect. From this, it follows that time has energy, and more specifically can impart or take away energy from a system depending on its direction.
Ultimately all effects come from movement, and without movement the concept of time has no meaning. The flow of time through an object affects its weight, and in turn the rate at which time passes can be affected.
The rate of flow of time can be considered the distance between cause and effect.
This can be connected to the above by another of Kozyrev's results; in a left-hand rotating system, the time flow is positive; that is, it adds energy. Meanwhile in a right-hand rotating system, the time flow is negative. This forms an immediately parallel with the torsion fields of subquarks.
Time is the dextrorotatory flow of subquarks, while its inverse, termed antitime, is the laevorotatory flow.

The Black Sun (which is in fact a dark red colour) emits laevorotatory subquarks, the visible, regular Sun emits quarks (luminiferous ether) which it has transformed from laevorotatory subquarks. The Black Sun, being the cause of solar eclipses, is thus used to explain the Allais effect. Further, the laevorotatory subquarks emitted balance the dextrorotatory subquarks that would otherwise cause terrestrial, pushing gravity.
The rotation of the stars about two points is analogous to the effect of subquark vortices, which can be in opposite directions as covered above. Recall that, beyond the first dome, rotational gravity is dominant.



Personal notes.


Progress:
Read it all!
Well, mostly, skipped Zeta function and historical posts, usually skimming, because they're not too connected to what I include here.
Next up, fixing up and clarifying a couple of points, compare with related texts, then write it all up properly. Whew.
I'm not including a lot of the revised version of history, the experiments in support of AFET and the experiments against RET in order to streamline and focus on the model.


For further reading, possibly in the literature:
The six gates theory link is broken and all that's on this site is here (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1726000#msg1726000) and here (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1566598#msg1566598) and here (https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1635693#msg1635693), to be unpacked later.
Velikovsky was mentioned several times. The Book of Enoch gets a mention, as well as Occult Chemistry, and Nikolai Kozyrev, and the Bundahishn, and Secret World of Magnets.
Progress check: https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg1506811#msg1506811

Personal notes redux, see if there is any information to be added from:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=30499.msg2097827#msg2097827
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 21, 2018, 03:46:40 PM
Sandokhan's Advanced Flat Earth Theory, Foreword

I'm breaking style slightly because this model merits a lead in. There is a lot to it, in his thread 'Advanced Flat Earth Theory' in the Believers board. It contains his model of the Earth, the evidence and experiments that support it, arguments against the mainstream RE model, as well as related points on a revised chronology of history and Riemann's Zeta function.

As ever, my compendium is focused on presenting the key points of a model. This is by no means exhaustive, but hopefully it gives you a sense of AFET and makes it easier to get started reading Sandokhan's thread, if you want to.
I'm not going to include 'contentious' points, arguments for or against a model, which make up a lot of his thread. I will present the statements of the model and the observations they explain, but if you are intererested in the sources and evidence I suggest you go to that thread. We've a lot to cover and I can only present a fraction.

If you are interested in further reading, the texts that appear to be of importance with respect to major aspects of AFET are:

I'll cover the nature of the atom and its properties, followed by the application of this to the Earth at large.
Probably my biggest omission is the revised chronology, which does tie to several points. I may go back at a later date and add a timeline to the compendium, but for the meantime the two above are planned.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 24, 2018, 02:09:39 PM
AFET: The Vortex Model of the Atom

We begin by defining ether as, ultimately, the building block of everything.
The most basic stage of ether is called aether, and it is the medium that underlies everything. Light travels through the aether as sound waves do air. It is the energy source for the movements of fundamental particles.
There are multiple densities of aether. As with any shift in medium, light is refracted when it travels from one density to another.

Next is reflector ether, which is composed of subquarks. It is fundamental to almost all of what follows.
A subquark appears as follows:

(https://esotericscience.org/diagrams/5a1-Subatomic-Particle.jpg)

Each subquark is composed of ten closed loops that never touch, and these loops are formed from bosons and antibosons. Every subquark spins and, due to the heart-shape, this forms a vortex around it, drawing both aether and ether towards the top and out of the point at the bottom.
A subquark may spin to the right, meaning it is dextrorotatory, or left, meaning it is laevorotatory. While every subquark both receives and emits due to its vortex, one of those two behaviours is dominant. As such, dextrorotatory subquarks are said to have receptive vortices, and laevorotatory subquarks are said to have emissive. (This could also be thought of as a negative or a positive charge, respectively).

The above is the most important, but for completeness’s sake the other stages of ether are:

Luminiferous ether, composed of quarks, which are composed of subquarks connected by bosons.
Vital ether is next, formed of mesons (a quark and an antiquark).
Finally we have chemical ether, composed of baryons (three quarks).

Strings of subquarks compose the ether. Before moving onto the properties, we look at bosons; over fourteen million of these compose a subquark, alongside their antiboson counterparts.
Boson strings travel through the ether as waves.
Forming every boson are two truncated pyramids (that is, pyramids with a flat surface in place of the point at the apex, as though the peak was cut away), facing towards each other. Between them their apexes, miniature pyramids themselves, rotating in opposite directions and forming a shape called a merkabah. They appear like:

(http://www.eaglespiritministry.com/pd/howto/images/mt_01.gif)

The downwards facing pyramid produces aether, while the upwards facing ‘activates’ it. Typical bosons produce more ether than aether, while the opposite is true for ‘dark’ bosons, the bosoms that compose dark matter.

So far, we have a different basis for atomic physics. Space is filled with the aether, a medium in turn filled with molecular vortices that jostle against each other, from the ether strings that fill it.
Every object is formed of both dextrorotatory and laevorotatory subquarks, however they will not always be equally active. Laevorotatory subquarks may be activated with certain types of sound waves (Tibetan acoustic levitation), electrical fields (the Biefeld-Brown effect), or by imparting torsion/rotation (Bruce DePalma’s spinning ball drop experiment).
Thus, an object where dextrorotatory subquarks are dominant will find that there is a pressure exerted upon it, caused by each of the subquarks that make it up; dextrorotatory subquarks are said to be gravitational.
Laevorotatory subquarks, by contrast, are antigravitational. Objects where both subquarks are active will not be subject to the aforementioned gravitational force, and will instead be governed only by ‘rotational gravity’ imparted by the vortices.
Dextrorotatory subquarks, over the long term, may cause an object to decay. This is also responsible for radioactivity; the radioactivity of objects may be stifled by triggering the laevorotatory subquarks that also compose it.

When an object is rotated at high speed, the atoms composing it break down into baryons, the fourth stage of ether. The term used for this process is ‘implosion.’ When this happens, a vortex is formed around an object, shaped like two overlapping cones, the apexes of each having passed into the other’s.

(https://basharspacetimeantenna.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/rendered-sta.jpg)

This torsion field shields an object from ether strings.

A consequence of this alternative model of the atom is that it allows for hydrogen to not be the lightest element. Hydrogen is, here, composed of eighteen subquarks: nine dextrorotatory, and nine laevorotatory. (Mainstream physics agrees that the proton may be split up into quarks and subquarks, but ascribes the negative charge entirely to one indivisible electron rather than nine subquarks).
Two lighter elements, both named by Mendeleev on his original periodic table, are Koronium and Newtonium. Koronium is formed of two, rather than three like hydrogen, quarks, and it is completely ‘imploded’ as it is formed entirely of quarks rather than a whole proton. As such, it is not subject to any gravitational force.
Newtonium is the lightest element of all, and in fact is just the subquark strings already referred to.
Information on what differentiates known elements has only been outlined, the book Occult Chemistry mentioned in the foreword covers it in much more detail.

Now, when an object is said to be an electrical conductor, this means that the subquarks that composed it are lines up such that the emissive tip is pointed at the receptive top of the heart-shaped structure. Thus, bosons may be transmitted through it, from one subquark to the next. As one would expect, magnetic forces are similar, caused by the ‘double helix’ of vortices, already mentioned to be likened to positive and negative charges. Electricity is the subquark flow through a conductor, while magnetism is external.
In fact, electromagnetism and gravity are components of the same force. The magnetic field of any object, from a fridge magnet to a world, an be viewed as two streams spiralling around each other, one heading to the North Pole, one heading to the South. One of these streams is the electromagnetic force, studied by mainstream science, while the other is the gravitational flow.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 24, 2018, 02:10:11 PM
AFET: The Earth and Celestial Bodies

This section will draw heavily from the vortex model of the atom. If a term is used but not defined, it is likely typical scientific terminology.
The Earth is an entirely stationary flat disc, a little under 40,000km in circumference, and the Centre is the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, the location of Eden. Antarctica is an island. Around the known Earth is a ring of land that is populated by animals and plants, a continent called Antichtone. Beyond this ring is a vast sea of water, known of in ancient times, that is the source of underground rivers and the like.
The Earth is the centre of the universe, is entirely stationary, and the map is:

(https://web.archive.org/web/20090831201231im_/http://geocities.com/levelwater/africabrazil.gif)

The Earth is contained within two domes. The first is composed of a very dense layer of aether and ether, and beyond it is where the Sun, moon, stars and planets all reside; they never pass within the first dome. Past them is the second dome, which marks the border of what can be considered the universe.
We stay on the Earth’s surface because of the pressure exerted by dextrorotatory subquarks (gravity is best viewed as the rate at which ether is absorbed by the receptive vortices), which are also the telluric currents. If, for example, you were to seal a bottle at the top of a mountain, it would be sealed where laevorotatory subquarks were more active; when the bottle is brought down the mountain, the vortices of dextrorotatory subquarks become stronger and essentially cause the bottle to implode.
The variation in this downwards force is responsible for tides.
The vibration of dextrorotatory subquarks has increased, and the decay effect caused by this is causing the ice caps to melt. Laevorotatory subquarks counter this decomposition; this is why the proteins that make up matter are L-proteins (L for laevo).
There is more aether at higher altitudes due to the increased presence of laevorotatory, emissive subquarks. As such, the path of light is curved when it moves through the medium’s altering density.

The Earth’s magnetic field is composed of a subquark flow that begins at one pole, passes through the centre of the Earth, and then goes into the other. The North Pole is receptive, the South emissive.

The Sun, moon and all stars are flat discs. The Sun, moon and (for scale) Jupiter have a diameter of 618m. The Sun is 10km up.
Historically there was a third star in the Sirius cluster that exploded into two halves; these halves are now called the Black Sun and the Shadow Moon, and are distinct from the regular Sun and moon. The former causes solar eclipses, the latter causes lunar eclipses.
Before this happened, the Sun and moon shone with equal intensity and there was 24 hour daylight.
The asteroid belt was formed when Jupiter collided with the second of those two halves.
The moon, Mercury and Venus rotate around the Sun. The Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn rotate above the Earth.
There are two more celestial bodies of note. One is named Aurora and orbits over and near the North Pole, never moving far, and as its name suggests the light is gives is the aurora. It has a counterpart over the South Pole that does much the same.

The Sun’s path is composed of arches. It rises beyond Japan, illuminating half the Earth’s surface, and sets past Antarctica where it then rises to complete its orbit over the other semicircle of the Earth’s surface. The Sun does indeed set, rather than dwindling out of view.
The Sun emits high frequency electric energy into the low pressure gas in the upper atmosphere, causing the luminescence that is observed at Sunrise. Thus, a setting Sun swiftly becomes a rising one. These electric currents also affect the Earth, indeed they are the Birkeland currents associated with the Earth’s magnetic field. (There are also Birkeland currents throughout space).
The electromagnetic particles it emits, due to being accelerated through the ether field, become X-rays.
The Sun emits quarks, or luminiferous ether, which it has transformed from laevorotatory subquarks.
The Sun also gives the energy required for the moon to be illuminated, though this energy wanes, causing phases.

The Black Sun (which is in fact a dark red colour) emits laevorotatory subquarks, or Newtonium. These are responsible for the Allais effect during solar eclipses. Further, due to their presence above the first dome, there is no ‘pressure gravity’ (or ‘terrestrial gravity’) force, and so the celestial objects will not fall.
Jupiter and Venus emit bosons.

Satellites exist, but are kept aloft by an application of the Biefeld-Brown effect; triggering laevorotatory subquarks via an electrical current.

The Sun, along with the moon and stars, travel through six gates on the outside of the first dome. These gates mark down the distance between the tropics. There are six gates in the east, and six in the west; the Sun spends approximately thirty days in each. They map out the distance from Summer to Winter solstice, and from Winter to Summer solstice.
Each day the Sun rises through one gate, and sets by passing through its counterpart on the other side. There are thirty windows associated with each gate.
Each gate is 1048km in arc length, and so each window is approximately 35.4km.
The axial precession of the Sun is a gauge of what part of a window it travels through. When the Sun reaches the final part of a window, all celestial objects will be as they were originally; at this point it will be possible to see the moon as a separate entity during solar eclipses.
For the source of this, check the referenced chapters in the Book of Enoch.

The stars appear to rotate around two distinct points as a larger scale analogue to the subquark vortices that rotate in opposing directions.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 26, 2018, 02:47:50 PM
Denpressure Master Post

There are a number of FE models which fundamentally change some underlying physics. In these cases it's impossible to explain anything of significance in the model without first going over those underlying principles. As such, for ease of linking, I'm referencing all the constituent parts of denpressure in this post.

First up, there's the nature of matter:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921462#msg1921462
Extending from this, there is the overall set-up of the Earth:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921476#msg1921476
And finally, the titular theory of denpressure itself, which draws on both the above to explain what keeps us on the Earth's surface:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1935684#msg1935684
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 26, 2018, 02:50:04 PM
Dual Earth Theory Master Post

There are a number of FE models which fundamentally change some underlying physics. In these cases it's impossible to explain anything of significance in the model without first going over those underlying principles. As such, for ease of linking, I'm referencing all the constituent parts of DET in this post.

First, there is an entity named aether that is defined:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921466#msg1921466
This entity is then used to explain the creation of and properties of the Earth:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1921471#msg1921471
And finally, the stars are defined with reference to the layout described in the above:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg1922154#msg1922154
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 26, 2018, 02:54:16 PM
AFET Summary Master Post
There are a number of FE models which fundamentally change some underlying physics. In these cases it's impossible to explain anything of significance in the model without first going over those underlying principles. As such, for ease of linking, I'm referencing all the constituent parts of AFET in this post.

First of all there is a summary. As AFET is easily once of the most, well, advanced models a great deal was omitted from my overview.
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2091553#msg2091553
More relevant to the model, the structure of subquarks is vital to understanding almost every mechanism in the model:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2092810#msg2092810
With that, the shape and layout of the Earth and celestial bodies can be explained:
https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/forum/index.php?topic=71053.msg2092811#msg2092811
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on August 29, 2018, 07:07:03 AM
Photoelectric Suspension Theory

This model is used as an explanation of how the Sun and moon stay aloft. It is used in some UA and/or dome models.

In the distant past, the Sun and moon were huge discs of metal on the Earth's surface. The core of the Earth, below the Earth's crust, is a molten metal core.

It is well established that certain frequencies of ionising radiation can affect matter, knocking electrons out of the atomic structure and as a result giving the matter a charge. It is said that this radiation affected both the discs and the metal core (one source of this radiation is said to be the source of the universal acceleration in UA models) and gave them like charges; as a result, they are repelled from one another, and so the Sun and moon are kept aloft in the sky because they cannot fall down to the Earth and come closer to its charged core.

The level of this electromagnetic radiation fluctuates, weakening or strengthening the repulsive force and allowing the Sun and moon to move and cycle around.

This is not connected to the source of their light.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on November 21, 2018, 09:27:39 AM
Expansion of Space

This phenomenon is predominantly relied upon in the Infinite Earth model. It is used to explain how the stars, Sun and other such celestial objects remain over the Earth's surface despite the pull of gravity. The basic principle is simple: space itself is said to expand at a rate greater than the acceleration caused by gravity. Thus things over the Earth are falling, but the distance they have to fall is increasing so they never appear to get closer.
This would also result in redshift.
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Son of Orospu on February 12, 2019, 07:47:51 AM
I, for one, am enjoying this compendium. 
Title: Re: Jane's FE Compendium
Post by: Jane on February 12, 2019, 03:35:18 PM
Satellites

This is a little outside the usual wheelhouse for this thread, as it's not exactly a principle specific to FE models and this isn't intended to answer every question asked of FET, but there are a few interesting concepts used so it seemed worth a mention.
First, as ever this is not universal. There are FE models (like the non-Euclidean) that allow for conventional space travel. Beyond that however, what fills the roles of satellites if there is no space travel? This question can especially be asked when there is no clear means for a perpetual orbit.

The catch-all term here is stratellites, which are literally just in-atmosphere equivalents. Commonly these are posited to be anything from planes, airships, balloons... though there are models (such as AFET) that have an alternate explanation for gravity that can be cancelled in certain circumstances allowing for machines that we have no real existing name for that can stay aloft easily. More conventionally, there can also be communication towers with either a direct line of sight, or a signal bounced off the upper atmosphere.
This allows for signals to be transmitted.

These can also be used to simulate points higher up. A satellite dish pointed one way could receive a signal from anything along that line, no matter how far it is. Two dishes claimed to be pointed to the same satellite are not necessarily doing so. This kind of simulation is connected to the GPS question; at a basic level GPS functions by a receiver picking up a signal from a transmitter containing the time at which the signal was sent, which is then used to determine how far away the transmitter is. With multiple transmitters, this ends up providing enough information to find a location as there will only be one spot that is the known distance away from the various points.
If a stratellite staggers the signals it emits, it can give the mathematical equivalent of a signal sent from higher up, at least if the signals are more directional.

For an example, forgoing units so we don't have to be constrained to realism, in the RE model a person on the ground might have a GPS transmitter telling them that they are 10 away from satellite A, and 12 away from satellite B.
In the FE model, stratellite A would be 5 away from the person in question. To compensate, the signal it emits is delayed; it gives the signal it itself would receive if there was a satellite A 5 away from it. Thus it creates the illusion of a satellite at higher altitude. A transmitter would still receive the 10, but this is just because the stratellite is giving data staggered as though it had already gone a distance of 5, only for it to go another 5. The same holds for stratellite B.

With this principle, GPS essentially functions as a landmark system. If you are a known distance away from a known point, it naturally gives an accurate reading of where you are. This is true independently of whatever world map is programmed into the receivers; any error that would creep into a journey based on differences between a flat and round map would, on the comparatively small scales of normal journeys, be put down to typical error just from the process of travelling and immediately be corrected for by locating another known point of a stratellite.