If you would please post your point in a single, concise question, I will be happy to provide you with an answer.

Sure. Let me ask the question once again.

How far is the Sun in FE model? Can you provide valid proof/link/calculations/source for that?

3000 miles, and here is how it was calculated.

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I have seen this. I even made a comment in previous post. I will repost this with more details.

Take three observers. For 1st the Sun in overhead at the equator. For 2nd the Sun is at 45 degrees angle (so we have the same setup as the picture you posted). For 3rd the Sun is at 5 degrees (actually, 30 is enough (ask people from Norway/Sweden/Finland), but 5 shows a bit more extreme error; 5 degrees is close to the North Pole). 1st and 2nd are 3000 miles away, so it follows that the Sun is 3000 miles far. Now, with that knowledge, 3rd can calculate his distance from 1st. The math says that if one of legs is 3000 miles and the angle between hypotenuse and the other leg is 5 degrees, then the other leg has almost 34290 miles. So, the North Pole is, based on this experiment, at least 34290 miles away from the equator. But it is not.

The problem with the way the distance was calculated in the source you posted is that it gives different values for different latitudes (or, equivalently, different angles objects cast on the surface).

If we take just two observers and repeat the experiment with 1st situatet at the equator and second moving from the equator to the NP, you will receive values that start from >billions close to the equator and going to just few miles close to the NP.