Threshold values of photoperiodic time-measurements correspond approximately to moonlight intensities. Experiments with Glycine and Euglena reveal that this is also the threshold value for synchronization of the circadian cycle. Saturation of this reaction is reached with 10 lx in 12:12 hr light-dark cycles. Thus, moonlight might disturb time measurement. In Glycine, Arachis, and Trifolium the intensity of the light coming from the moon to the upper surface of the leaf is reduced by circadian leaf movement to values between 5 and 20 per cent (or even less than 5 per cent) of full-moon light intensity. Such a reduction eliminates the disturbing effects of moonlight. This finding indicates that leaf movements have an adaptive value of the kind that Darwin sought to identify. It also indicates that the behavior of the upper leaf epidermis as a ``sense organ for light'' has an adaptive value. In the short-day plants Perilla ocymoides and Chenopodium amaranticolor, a specific photoperiodic phenomenon was found that counteracts the disturbing effect of moonlight. Here light intensities similar to those of moonlight, introduced during the night, promote flowering instead of inhibiting it.
This study investigated the effect of moonlight on the nocturnal activity patterns of prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis). The effect of stimulated moonlight on six adults and eight juvenile prairie rattlesnakes was tested under laboratory conditions in which temperature, feeding frequency, and photoperiod were controlled. The snakes were maintained and tested under a summer photoperiod of 14L: 10D h cycle. The activity of each snake was measured using an index of tracking in the sand floor of a test chamber under new, half, three-quarters, and full moon light (0.06, 0.35, 1.00, and 2.10 lux, respectively). Adult snake activity was significantly greater in new moonlight (starlight only) when compared to activity in three-quarter and full moonlight. The adults also significantly increased activity in open areas in dim moonlight.
It is well known that methionine is the trigger start codon for eukaryotes. However, the traditional strand of mRNA was absent of the usual Adenine sequences needed for an initial breakup of nucleotides. As seen: A Ala Lys Glu Trp Asn Asn Ser Leu Lys Thr Lys LeumRNA GCUAAAGAAUGGAACAACUCACUAAAAACCAAGCUG As a result, the anticodons were eventually found insubstantial pairings to complete entrance into the P complex of ribosomes. Thus it is evident that building has not and cannot occur henceforward from N-terminus to C-terminus
so in a sense we humans are all fish, and we are all lizards, and we are all rats, and we are all primates, and we are all orangutans.
Light of very low intensity can indeed [or of different property] bear an effect of circadian pacemakers, particularly with the most harmful effect among plants and insects. Some would say 5 photons per second per eye for 12 hours alternating with 12 hours of darkness is suffecient of also inclimation due to moonlit effectives, to entrain normal wheel-running activity rhythms of Periplanata. Human circadian cycles have been shown to alter indebivishing 200 to 500 flux, yet that such human studies were conducted in a manner comparable to a 24-hour included with the allowance of moonlight. Previous studies show that the disruptance of the circadian cycle rhythms is related directly to the intensity of moonlight during such a phase is administered.
looking at deficiency of sunlight and thus of vitamin D as a factor that might influence susceptibility and thus disease incidence. Sunlight deficiency increases blood cholesterol by allowing squalene metabolism to progress to cholesterol synthesis rather than to vitamin D synthesis as would occur with greater amounts of sunlight exposure
Benefits of sunlight: a bright spot for human health..Author(s):Mead MN.Source:Environmental Health Perspectives [Environ Health Perspect] 2008 Apr; Vol. 116 (4), pp. A160-7. .Publication Type:News.Language:English.Journal Information:Country of Publication: United States NLM ID: 0330411 Publication Model: Print Cited Medium: Print ISSN: 0091-6765 (Print) NLM ISO Abbreviation: Environ. Health Perspect. Subsets: MEDLINE
At least1,000 different genes governing virtuallyevery tissue in the body are now thought tobe regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25[OH]D), the active form of the vitamin,including several involved in calciummetabolism and neuromuscular andimmune system functioning.
The sun may be best known for boosting production of vitamin D, but there aremany other UVR-mediated effects independent of this pathway.Direct immune suppression. Exposure to both UVA and UVB radiation can have directimmunosuppressive effects through upregulation of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10) andincreased activity of T regulatory cells that remove self-reactive T cells. These mechanismsmay help prevent autoimmune diseases.Alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Upon exposure to sunshine,melanocytes and keratinocytes in the skin release α-MSH, which has been implicated inimmunologic tolerance and suppression of contact hypersensitivity. α-MSH also helpslimit oxidative DNA damage resulting from UVR and increases gene repair, thus reducingmelanoma risk, as reported 15 May 2005 in Cancer Research.Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Released in response to both UVA and UVBexposure, this potent neuropeptide modulates a number of cytokines and is linkedwith impaired induction of immunity and the development of immunologic tolerance.According to a report in the September 2007 issue of Photochemistry andPhotobiology, mast cells (which mediate hypersensitivity reactions) play a critical rolein CGRP-mediated immune suppression. This could help explain sunlight?s efficacy intreating skin disorders such as psoriasis.Neuropeptide substance P. Along with CGRP, this neuropeptide is released from sensorynerve fibers in the skin following UVR exposure. This results in increased lymphocyteproliferation and chemotaxis (chemically mediated movement) but may also producelocal immune suppression.Endorphins. UVR increases blood levels of natural opiates called endorphins.Melanocytes in human skin express a fully functioning endorphin receptor system,according to the June 2003 Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and a study published24 November 2005 in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology suggests that thecutaneous pigmentary system is an important stress-response element of the skin.
Those living without exposure to sunlight throughoutthe world are at higher risk of hypertension,and patients with cardiovascular diseaseare often found to be deficient in vitamin D,according to research by Harvard MedicalSchool professor Thomas J. Wang and colleaguesin the 29 January 2008 issue ofCirculation. ?Although the exact mechanismsare poorly understood, it is known that1,25(OH)D is among the most potent hormonesfor down-regulating the blood pressurehormone renin in the kidneys,? says Holick.?Moreover, there is an inflammatory componentto atherosclerosis, and vascular smoothmuscle cells have a vitamin D receptor andrelax in the presence of 1,25(OH)D, suggestinga multitude of mechanisms by which vitaminD may be cardioprotective.?To determine the potential link betwensun exposure and the protective effect in preventinghypertension, Rolfdieter Krause ofthe Free University of Berlin Department ofNatural Medicine and colleagues exposed agroup of hypertensive adults to summer sunlight. Another group of hypertensiveadults was exposed to a tanning bed thatemitted UVA-only radiation similar to wintersunlight. After three months, those who were exposedto the full-spectrum of sunlight had an average180% increase in their 25(OH)D levels andan average 6 mm Hg decrease in their systolicand diastolic blood pressures, bringing theminto the normal range. In constrast, the groupthat used the UVA-only tanning bed showedno change in either 25(OH)D or blood pressure.These results were published in the29 August 1998 issue of The Lancet.
Great stuff Ichi. It's always good to see activity here in the Believers section. I think your research complements some of the work James has done very well.
t-test Data source: Data 1 in Notebook 1Normality Test: Passed (P = 0.701)Equal Variance Test: Passed (P = 0.423)Group Name N Missing Mean Std Dev SEM Col 1 3 0 0.1000 0.1000 0.0577 Col 2 3 0 0.133 0.153 0.0882 Difference -0.0333t = -0.316 with 4 degrees of freedom. (P = 0.768)95 percent confidence interval for difference of means: -0.326 to 0.259The difference in the mean values of the two groups is not great enough to reject the possibility that the difference is due to random sampling variability. There is not a statistically significant difference between the input groups (P = 0.768).Power of performed test with alpha = 0.050: 0.050The power of the performed test (0.050) is below the desired power of 0.800.Less than desired power indicates you are less likely to detect a difference when one actually exists. Negative results should be interpreted cautiously.
t-test Data source: Data 1 in Notebook 1Normality Test: Passed (P = 0.079)Equal Variance Test: Passed (P = 1.000)Group Name N Missing Mean Std Dev SEM Col 1 3 0 -3.000 2.646 1.528 Col 2 3 0 4.667 2.887 1.667 Difference -7.667t = -3.391 with 4 degrees of freedom. (P = 0.028)95 percent confidence interval for difference of means: -13.944 to -1.390The difference in the mean values of the two groups is greater than would be expected by chance; there is a statistically significant difference between the input groups (P = 0.028).Power of performed test with alpha = 0.050: 0.686
t-test Data source: Data 1 in Notebook 1Normality Test: Passed (P = 0.701)Equal Variance Test: Passed (P = 0.423)Group Name N Missing Mean Std Dev SEM Col 1 3 0 -0.333 1.528 0.882 Col 2 3 0 4.000 2.000 1.155 Difference -4.333t = -2.982 with 4 degrees of freedom. (P = 0.041)95 percent confidence interval for difference of means: -8.367 to -0.299The difference in the mean values of the two groups is greater than would be expected by chance; there is a statistically significant difference between the input groups (P = 0.041).Power of performed test with alpha = 0.050: 0.567
t-test Data source: Data 1 in Notebook 1Normality Test: Passed (P = 0.653)Equal Variance Test: Passed (P = 1.000)Group Name N Missing Mean Std Dev SEM Col 1 3 0 -2.667 2.517 1.453 Col 2 3 0 3.000 1.732 1.000 Difference -5.667t = -3.213 with 4 degrees of freedom. (P = 0.033)95 percent confidence interval for difference of means: -10.564 to -0.769The difference in the mean values of the two groups is greater than would be expected by chance; there is a statistically significant difference between the input groups (P = 0.033).Power of performed test with alpha = 0.050: 0.636
These opposite biological effects lead to further evidence that moonlight is much different than sunlight